We could be entangled with someone from the past, or the future, and not be aware of it consciously? Weird.
But now, a new experiment has scientists believing that quantum entanglement doesn’t just apply to spatial gaps, but time itself.
Einstein famously battled with physicist Niel Bohr over the predictions and theories of quantum mechanics, such as the wave function. He also corresponded with Erwin Schrödinger—yes, of Schrödinger’s cat—and in one of his 1935 letters, Einstein stated: “I know of course how the hocus pocus works mathematically. But I do not like such a theory.”
The principle of entanglement held that it was impossible to independently describe two quantum systems that had once been united. One influenced the other instantaneously across vast distances, which meant that in some cases it appeared as though information was being transmitted and received faster than the speed of light, which Einstein believed was impossible.
This is the shocking suggestion by a team of physicists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who believe they have used “entanglement swapping” techniques to show that quantum nonlocality also includes temporal nonlocality.
In other words, quantum systems can communicate instantly with one another not only over vast distances of space but vast distances of time.
The experiment involved measuring the polarization of pairs of photons and tracking their entangled relations.
The results showed “temporally nonlocal” correlations between particles. In other words, particles that never existed contemporaneously in space can still share an entangled bond over time. This suggests the possibility of a much more vast and deeper quantum connective tissue to the universe that transcends space-time.
The implications of this are stunning. As ScienceAlert noted:
“Prima facie, it seems as troubling as saying that the polarity of starlight in the far-distant past – say, greater than twice Earth’s lifetime – nevertheless influenced the polarity of starlight falling through your amateur telescope this winter.
Even more bizarrely: maybe it implies that the measurements carried out by your eye upon starlight falling through your telescope this winter somehow dictated the polarity of photons more than 9 billion years old.”
The anomalies of quantum physics troubled Einstein until the day he died. It seems now we’re getting even greater detail on why he was so disturbed by what scientists saw as they pulled back the curtain on the nature of existence.
The results of these experiments pose vexing questions that tear at the very fabric of reality: Could it be that our observations in the present are influencing events from the distant past, such as the Big Bang itself, and vice versa?
Time feels real to people. But it doesn’t even exist, according to quantum physics. “There is no time variable in the fundamental equations that describe the world,” theoretical physicist Carlo Rovelli tells Quartz.
If you met him socially, Rovelli wouldn’t assault you with abstractions and math to prove this point. He’d “rather not ruin a party with physics,” he says. We don’t have to understand the mechanics of the universe to go about our daily lives. But it’s good to take a step back every once in a while.
“Time is a fascinating topic because it touches our deepest emotions. Time opens up life and takes everything away. Wondering about time is wondering about the very sense of our life. This is [why] I have spent my life studying time,” Rovelli explains.
Rovelli’s new book, The Order of Time, published in April, is about our experience of time’s passage as humans, and the fact of its absence at minuscule and vast scales. He makes a compelling argument that chronology and continuity are just a story we tell ourselves in order to make sense of our existence.
Time, Rovelli contends, is merely a perspective, rather than a universal truth. It’s a point of view that humans share as a result of our biology and evolution, our place on Earth, and the planet’s place in the universe.
“From our perspective, the perspective of creatures who make up a small part of the world—we see that world flowing in time,” the physicist writes. At the quantum level, however, durations are so short that they can’t be divided and there is no such thing as time.
In fact, Rovelli explains, there are actually no things at all. Instead, the universe is made up of countless events. Even what might seem like a thing—a stone, say—is really an event taking place at a rate we can’t register. The stone is in a continual state of transformation, and on a long enough timeline, even it is fleeting, destined to take on some other form.
In the “elementary grammar of the world, there is neither space nor time—only processes that transform physical quantities from one to another, from which it is possible to calculate possibilities and relations,” the scientist writes.
Even what might seem like a thing—a stone, say—is really an event taking place at a rate we can’t register. Rovelli argues that time only seems to pass in an ordered fashion because we happen to be on Earth, which has a certain, unique entropic relationship to the rest of the universe. Essentially, the way our planet moves creates a sensation of order for us that’s not necessarily the case everywhere in the universe. Just as orchids grow in Florida swamps and not in California’s deserts, so is time a product of the planet we are on and its relation to the surroundings; a fluke, not inherent to the universe.
The world seems ordered, going from past to present, linking cause and effect, because of our perspective. We superimpose order upon it, fixing events into a particular, linear series. We link events to outcomes, and this give us a sense of time.
But the universe is much more complex and chaotic than we can allow for, according to Rovelli. Humans rely on approximate descriptions that actually ignore most of the other events, relations, and possibilities. Our limitations create a false, or incomplete, sense of order that doesn’t tell the whole story.
The physicist argues that, in fact, we “blur” the world to focus on it, blind ourselves to see. For that reason, Rovelli writes, “Time is ignorance.”
If all this sounds terribly abstract, that’s because it is. But there’s some relatively simple proof to support the notion time is a fluid, human concept—an experience, rather than inherent to the universe.
Imagine, for example, that you are on Earth, viewing a far-off planet, called Proxima b, through a telescope. Rovelli explains that “now” doesn’t describe the same present on Earth and that planet. The light you on Earth see when looking at Proxima b is old news, conveying what was on that planet four years ago. “There is no special moment of Proxima b that corresponds to the present here and now,” Rovelli writes.
This might sound strange, until you consider something as mundane as making an international call. You’re in New York, talking to friends in London. When their words reach your ears, milliseconds have passed, and “now” is no longer the same “now” as it was when the person on the line replied, “I can hear you now.”
You only share the same time with people in a limited place, and even that is a relatively new invention. Consider, too, that we don’t share the same time in different places. Someone in London is always experiencing a different point in their day than someone in New York. Your New York morning is their afternoon. Your evening is their midnight. You only share the same time with people in a limited place, and even that is a relatively new invention.
It was not until the 19th century, when train travel demanded uniformity, that “noon” came at the same time in New York and Boston, say. Before we needed to agree on time precisely, every place—even relatively close villages—operated on slightly different times. “Noon” was when the sun was highest in the sky and, in Europe, church bells signaled when this time arrived—ringing at different times in every place. By the 20th century, we had agreed upon time zones. But it was a business decision, not a fact of the universe.
Time even passes at different rates from place to place, Rovelli notes. On a mountaintop, time passes faster than at sea level. Similarly, the hands of a clock on the floor will move slightly slower than the hands of a clock on a tabletop.
Likewise, time will seem to pass slower or faster depending on what you’re doing. The minutes in a quantum physics class might crawl by, seeming interminable, while the hours of a party fly.
All these differences are evidence that “times are legion,” according to the physicist. And none of these are exactly true, describing time in its entirety.
“Time is a multilayered, complex concept with multiple, distinct properties deriving from various different approximations,” Rovelli writes. “The temporal structure of the world is different from the naïve image that we have of it.” The simple sense of time that we share works, more or less, in our lives. But it just isn’t accurate when describing the universe “in its minute folds or its vastness.”
Though physics gives us insights into the mystery of time, ultimately, the scientist argues, that too is unsatisfactory to us as humans. The simple feeling we have that time passes by, or flows—borne of a fluke, naiveté, and limitations—is precisely what time is for us.
Rovelli argues that what we experience as time’s passage is a mental process happening in the space between memory and anticipation. “Time is the form in which we beings whose brains are made up essentially of memory and foresight interact with our world: it is the source of our identity,” he writes.
“Time is the form in which we beings whose brains are made up essentially of memory and foresight interact with our world: it is the source of our identity.” Basically, he believes, time is a story we’re always telling ourselves in the present tense, individually and together. It’s a collective act of introspection and narrative, record-keeping and expectation, that’s based on our relationship to prior events and the sense that happenings are impending. It is this tale that gives us our sense of self as well, a feeling that many neuroscientists, mystics, and the physicist argue is a mass delusion.
Without a record—or memory—and expectations of continuation, we would not experience time’s passage or even know who we are, Rovelli contends. Time, then, is an emotional and psychological experience. “It’s loosely connected with external reality,” he says, “but it is mostly something that happens now in our head.”.
“We choose to examine a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible, to explain in any classical way, and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics. In reality, it contains the only mystery.”
– Richard Feynman, a Nobel laureate of the twentieth century (Radin, Dean. Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences In A Quantum Reality. New York, Paraview Pocket Books, 2006.)
The concept of “time” is a weird one, and the world of quantum physics is even weirder. There is no shortage of observed phenomena that defy our understanding of logic, bringing into play thoughts, feelings, emotions — consciousness itself — and a post-materialist view of the universe. This fact is no better illustrated than by the classic double slit experiment, which has been used by physicists to explore the role of consciousness in shaping/affecting physical reality. The dominant role of a physical material (Newtonian) universe was dropped the second quantum mechanics entered into the equation and shook up the very foundation of science, as it continues to do today.
“I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulating consciousness.”
– Max Planck, theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918
There is another groundbreaking experiment that has tremendous implications for understanding the nature of our reality, and more specifically, the nature of what we call “time.”
It’s known as the “delayed-choice” experiment, or “quantum eraser,” and it can be considered a modified version of the double slit experiment.
To understand the delayed choice experiment, you have to understand the quantum double slit experiment.
Tiny bits of matter (photons, electrons, or any atomic-sized object) are shot toward a screen that has two slits in it. On the other side of the screen, a video camera records where each photon lands. When scientists close one slit, the camera will show us an expected pattern, as seen in the video below. But when both slits are opened, an “interference pattern” emerges — they begin to act like waves. This doesn’t mean that atomic objects are observed as a wave (even though they recently have been observed as a wave), they just act that way. It means that each photon individually goes through both slits at the same time and interferes with itself, but it also goes through one slit, and it goes through the other. Furthermore, it goes through neither of them. The single piece of matter becomes a “wave” of potentials, expressing itself in the form of multiple possibilities, and this is why we get the interference pattern.
How can a single piece of matter exist and express itself in multiple states, without any physical properties, until it is “measured” or “observed”? Furthermore, how does it choose which path, out of multiple possibilities, it will take?
Then, when an “observer” decides to measure and look at which slit the piece of matter goes through, the “wave” of potential paths collapses into one single path. The particle goes from becoming a “wave” of potentials and turns into one particle taking a single route. It’s as if the particle knows it’s being watched. The observer has some sort of effect on the behaviour of the particle.
You can view a visual demonstration/explanation of the double slit experiment here.
This quantum uncertainty is defined as the ability, “according to the quantum mechanic laws that govern subatomic affairs, of a particle like an electron to exist in a murky state of possibility — to be anywhere, everywhere or nowhere at all — until clicked into substantiality by a laboratory detector or an eyeball.”
According to physicist Andrew Truscott, lead researcher from a study published by the Australian National University, the experiment suggests that “reality does not exist unless we are looking at it.” It suggests that we are living in a holographic-type of universe. (source)
If the Chronovisor time machine fell into the wrong hands, it could then create the “scariest dictatorship the world has ever seen.”
June 14, 2017
At the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church, the Vatican has been embroiled in many conspiracy theories. One of these theories is that the Vatican has a secret device called the Chronovisor, which it uses to look into past and future events.
In the late 19th century, the English author H. G. Wells published his science fiction novel The Time Machine. Although the work was fiction, it attracted interest in both the scientific and pseudo-science community. The novel became popular to the extent that some physicists believed traveling through time is possible.
Although time travel still remains a controversy among the scientific community today, some scientists have proven the mission possible. In 2015, a group of scientists from the University of Queensland, Australia simulated how time-travelling photons might behave; suggesting that, at the quantum level, the grandfather paradox – which makes time travel impossible – could be resolved. The study used photons – single particles of light – to simulate quantum particles travelling back through time. By studying their behavior, the scientists revealed possible strange aspects of modern physics, concluding that time travel is possible.
Having established this fact within the modern-day scientific community, the Vatican’s Chronovisor rumor appears to have the element of truth. In May 1972, an Italian newspaper published an article titled “A machine that photographs the past has finally been invented.” The article alleged that the machine capable of this extraordinary task is called the Chronovisor, and was invented by Vatican insiders.
The article further revealed that the device enables its user to observe future as well as past events, and that the machine the Vatican possessed is one of the greatest guarded secrets humanity has ever had. This article was the first to shed light on the Chronovisor publicly. But as for those familiar with activities that go on inside the Vatican, the article wasn’t surprising.
According to details of the article, many scientists contributed to the building of the Chronovisor in the 1950s under strict supervision of the Vatican. Father Pellegrino Maria Ernetti, an Italian physicist who later became a priest, is said to have led the project. He received technical and important information from Nobel laureate Enrico Fermi and the famous rocket scientist, Wernher von Braun.
The article described the machine as a small object that is equipped with a number of antennas, composing entirely of precious alloys, cathode tubes, some dials, and levers. The device is capable of capturing specific locations, important events in the past and those that are yet to come.
In 1997, the German author Peter Krassa revealed more details of the Chronovisor in his book ‘Father Ernetti’s Chronovisor: The Creation and Disappearance of the World’s First Time Machine’. Krassa had a personal encounter with Father Ernetti before his [Ernetti] death in 1994.
The priest told Krassa that he had in fact invented the machine. Father Ernetti confirmed that he used his machine to witness the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and other major historical events, including the founding of Rome in 753 B.C. He also claimed to have attended a performance of a previously unknown play by the Roman playwright Quintus Ennius by the help of the machine.
According to Krassa, Ernetti said he used the machine to witness the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, as well as witnessing Napoleon, the Roman philosopher Cicero and other great and momentous historical and biblical episodes.
However, when asked about the whereabouts of this amazing device, Father Ernetti refused to answer, saying he was not allowed to talk about the location or whether the device was still being used or not.
Apart from what Krassa published, others who were close to father Ernetti speculated that father Ernetti himself decided to dismantle the machine due to fear of the machine falling into the wrong hands.
Father Ernetti is reported to have said if the Chronovisor fell into the wrong hands, it could then create the “scariest dictatorship the world has ever seen.”
Another source also quoted Father Ernetti as saying “Pope Pius XII forbade us to do disclose any details about this device because the machine was very dangerous. It can restrain the freedom of man…”
The Vatican later denied links with the machine, warning that “anyone using, an instrument of such characteristics would be excommunicated.” This warning prompted many conspiracy theorists to believe the church is hiding the Chronovisor from the rest of the world.
Whether this is true or not, the Chronovisor rumor still hangs around the neck of the Vatican, refusing to disappear. Do you believe the Vatican has no knowledge of the machine, or do you believe the rumor? Share your thoughts with us below.
Scientists studying the pattern of circadian rhythms have found that one central body clock could be controlling several others at the same time.
By examining fruit flies – which, like humans, have several circadian clocks affecting the rhythm their daily biological processes – researchers have found evidence of a single ‘master’ clock that leads all other internal clocks related to sleeping and eating patterns, and various organ functions.
The team says this finally gives experimental proof for the so-called coupled-oscillator model moderating the daily rhythms of our physiology and behaviour.
“This is the first comprehensive experimental description of a pathway that links circadian clocks, and it shows that the coupled-oscillator model is actually true in certain cases,” says one of the researchers, Christian Wegener from the University of Würzburg in Germany.
The team focussed on a neuronal pathway (the hyperthetical master clock) that linked the circadian clock in the brain of the fruit fly with a peripheral clock in its prothoracic gland, which is responsible for producing steroid hormones.
This gland was chosen because it gives the signal for the fruit fly to hatch – a strictly timed process that usually happens in the early morning.
The team was able to identify certain types of neurons, called PTTH neurons, relaying time information from the central clock in the brain to the peripheral clock in the prothoracic gland.
Then in follow-up experiments, the circadian clocks of fruit flies were slowed down, and the hatching rhythm stretched to a 27-hour cycle from its usual 24-hour one.
The same effect was noticed when only the central brain clock was slowed, again resulting in a 27-hour hatching cycle.
Meanwhile, when the central brain clock was left to work normally, and the peripheral gland clock was slowed down, the hatching rhythm stayed at 24 hours.
This suggests that it’s the master clock doing the time regulation – at least in this particular case. And because the neuronal pathway being studied is similar to a system found in the circadian rhythm of mammals, it could apply to humans too.
More research is needed before we can be sure about that, but it’s another sign that our brain’s master clock keeps the others ticking over.
In humans, the master clock is thought to be located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus – part of the brain’s hypothalamus region, made up of around 20,000 neurons.
Comment: Melatonin & chronobiology
This region uses cues such as daylight to figure out when we should be sleepy and when we should be wakeful.
Exactly how all these clocks and biological messengers work together is something scientists are still investigating.
And the more we know, the better we can keep ourselves healthy.
Thanks to the fruit fly, now we know a little more.
The research has been published in Nature Communications.