Have you ever wondered why so many people who take antidepressants continue to be depressed? The truth is that like many other drugs for mental disorders, they are not the cures that many people believe them to be. They might address symptoms, but they don’t really do much about the cause of depression – and therein lies an important distinction.
In the Waking Times, author Tracy Kolenchuk looks at the logic of a depression diagnosis. What happens when someone is cured of depression? Let’s say their depression was actually caused by a nutritional deficiency. When the deficiency is corrected, their depression goes away – but did they ever really have depression in the first place, or did they just have malnutrition? She argues that depression was a symptom of malnutrition in such a case rather than a disease.
In the case of depression being caused by drugs or toxic chemical exposure, a similar mechanism is at play: Removing the drugs or chemicals from the equation may cure the person’s feelings of depression, but again, it was just a symptom of some type of poisoning rather than a disease. When depression is caused by abuse and then the person is removed from the abusive situation, it wasn’t a mental disorder – it was abuse.
The same can be said of chronic depression, only in this case, the chronic nature of the cause must be addressed to bring about benefits. If a person is in chronically toxic relationships or chronically deficient in nutrition, it’s these causes that must be addressed – but on a wider scale than in the previous cases. A healthy meal or two may help, but if they’re chronically malnourished, they might also be poor, and then their chronic poverty – and by extension, chronic malnutrition – must also be addressed. That’s a much bigger task, of course.
She says that these concepts also apply to anxiety, psychosis, social anxiety, panic attacks, and hyperactivity. If it can be cured, that can be done by addressing the cause – but in that case, it was never really a mental disorder after all.
Getting relief from depression
Of course, all this is just semantics. A depressed person likely just wants relief and doesn’t care about labels, and many of us – depressed or not – have had it drilled into our heads that antidepressants are really the only option out there. That’s the main reason so many people willingly subject themselves to the side effects of these drugs, which include weight gain, insomnia, loss of sexual desire, nausea, constipation, and suicidal thoughts.
Depression is complex and often has multiple causes, and each of these needs to be addressed to make real progress toward feeling better. For many, it’s not just about cleaning up their diet, even though that can help. Consider this: If malnutrition causes a person to become depressed, they may attract toxic relationships into their lives, which could eventually spur them to turn to toxic drugs in a downward spiral of illness. This, too, can be cured, but it requires addressing all of these factors.
Many people don’t realize the strong connection between the gut and the brain. For example, an inflammatory response that starts in your gut that is connected to a lack of nutrients like omega 3s, probiotics, and magnesium, leads to the inflammation in the brain that is behind depression. Therefore, it shouldn’t too surprising to learn that food supplements such as omega 3s, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 and B vitamins can help improve mood and relieve depression and anxiety.
If you or someone you care about is suffering from depression, share this information with them. It could very well help them avoid dangerous antidepressants and finally find some true relief.
Heart disease is not just the leading cause of death in the USA, but also in the whole world. It’s not just the leading cause of death for men, but also for women. Heart disease is not just one disease. It’s a whole group of diseases which affect the circulatory system and include cardiovascular disease […]
Heart disease is not just the leading cause of death in the USA, but also in the whole world. It’s not just the leading cause of death for men, but also for women. Heart disease is not just one disease. It’s a whole group of diseases which affect the circulatory system and include cardiovascular disease and conditions like high/low blood pressure. So what really causes it – and what can you do about it?
What You May Hear from Western Doctors on Heart Disease
What does Western Medicine have to say about heart disease? That it can’t be cured, of course, just like they say all major diseases like cancer can’t be cured. What else? Often, it’s just advice like this, which is a half-truth or limited hangout: they’ll tell you that you can eat anything – anything! – you want, just as long as you stop smoking and take statins. Big Pharma and all those who serve it have nothing to gain from you being educated about health and the body.
All Roads Lead to the Heart
The heart is your central organ and is closely involved in the workings of your circulatory system. The arteries that take oxygen-rich blood from your heart to your muscles and extremities, and the veins that take oxygen-depleted blood back, are all part of this system, as is your blood itself. So, ailments such as clogged arteries and high blood pressure are all related to heart disease. For instance, when your arteries are clogged, your heart has to work harder to push the blood around your body, which can cause it to strain. High blood pressure is indicative of blood that is too thick or sludgy and does not flow around the arteries/veins easily, again leading to heart strain. In many ways, all roads lead to the heart.
Heart Disease: The Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Myth
So, do people just get clogged arteries and high blood pressure for no reason? No, of course not. There is a cause, just as there is a cure. However, Western Medicine is too focused on pushing pills and stopping symptoms rather than educating patients and addressing the underlying cause. For decades, health officials and medical professionals have told us that heart disease is caused by saturated fat and cholesterol. This sprung from the skewed research of Dr. Ancel Keys as I detailed in the article Plastic Oils vs. Saturated Fats: Busting the Propaganda. Keys demonized these essential nutrients, despite the fact that your brain is mostly composed of saturated fat and that cholesterol is a crucial structural component of your cells. Cholesterol helps with respiratory and gastrointestinal problems, creates vitamin D and is part of the healing mechanism of your body. The misinformation about saturated fat and cholesterol was seized upon by the American Heart Association (AHA) (funded by Procter & Gamble, makers of the hydrogenated oil Crisco, and of which Keys was a board member). They went on TV to falsely claim that a diet with large amounts of butter, lard, eggs and beef would lead to coronary heart disease.
The Cholesterol Myth Continues – Dangerous Statins
Sadly, the “saturated fat and cholesterol are bad for you” myth continues today, with some esteemed doctors commenting that the testing and treating of cholesterol is the biggest medical fraud around! It underpins the propaganda that Big Pharma uses to push one its favorite drugs of choice: statins. In 2017, the CDC found that about 28% of American men and women over age 40 take a statin. Statins are very dangerous: they block cholesterol production but an international study found that 39% of men and 34% of women who have had heart disease have high triglycerides or fat levels, so what’s the point? Exercise makes the heart grow stronger, but statins block the adaptation of the heart to get stronger and the body to produce more mitochondria/energy. Be Brain Fit explains that statins decrease the production of CoQ10, a nutrient that protects both the heart and the brain. Memory loss is a documented side effect of statin drugs; they are also implicated in dementia and Alzheimer’s. The FDA requires that warning labels state that statins can cause memory loss as well as mental confusion, liver problems and type 2 diabetes. Statins can lead to diabetes at an alarming rate; research has found that nearly half of women who take them eventually develop diabetes, and to come full circle, diabetes is a disease which greatly increases your risk of dementia.
The Real Causes of Heart Disease: Oxidation, Inflammation, Deficiency and Stress
The causes of heart disease are not to be found by obsessing over saturated fat and cholesterol, but rather looking at oxidation, inflammation, deficiency/depletion (lack of essential nutrients) and – the biggest one – stress. This includes both physical and mental stress. These causes often reinforce each other. While we need to feel stress occasionally to be motivated to change something, chronic or long-term stress taxes our heart. Stress takes us out of our parasympathetic nervous system (relaxed state) and puts us into our sympathetic nervous system (fight-or-flight state). It burns up the crucial nutrients we need for growth and our immune system. Stress produces the cortisol and adrenaline hormones; cortisol lowers our immunity and adrenaline increases our blood pressure.
Some people are so chronically stressed that they skip high quality foods and start eating large amounts of junk food, consuming more processed sugar, smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol (oxidation). These kind of lifestyle choices further tax our heart by depriving the body of essential nutrients (deficiency) and in the particular case of cigarettes activate the sympathetic nervous system again. Processed food is especially problematic, because it is almost always way high in sodium and missing any fresh fruit or vegetables which are high in potassium. Science has shown that a potassium-sodium imbalance caused by missing potassium is the cause of high blood pressure, the main cause of stroke and contributes to heart disease.
Too much stress and poor lifestyle choices unfailingly lead to chronic inflammation. Acute or short-term inflammation is the body’s healthy response to a wound, but chronic inflammation is a big problem. It’s the basis for many illnesses including a lot of autoimmune diseases and diabetes, obesity, depression, cancer and, naturally, heart disease. It is especially noteworthy to realize that the foods that promote the most inflammation are hydrogenated, trans or “plastic” oils, refined grains and processed sugar – some of which are promoted by the AHA! We live in an upside-down world where white is black and black is white, so it’s very important to think for yourself and not just blindly follow a package label (“Healthy Heart”) or an institution with a nice-sounding name.
Natural Cures, Remedies and Solutions for Heart Disease
So, now that you understand that real causes of heart disease, what are the natural solutions? To begin with, reduce oxidation and aging by introducing more antioxidants into your diet, including C60, berries, nuts, potatoes, cacao and the Indian and Italian spices. Tackle inflammation by making your diet more anti-inflammatory. Here are tips on how to defeat chronic inflammation.
Counter deficiency by eating nutrient-rich food. Some people take mineral supplements due to their belief that the soil is depleted and that their food doesn’t contain the levels of nutrients it used to (even if it is organic). Try supplementing with nascent iodine, magnesium oil and colloidal copper. One of the best natural heart medicines is HB Extract (a wildcrafted and organic formula of 11 natural herbs) which has helped people get off their petrochemical Big Pharma meds for good.
Ditch your statins. This 2012 study found that just 20 minutes of daily meditation was 5 to 11 times more beneficial than statins in reducing heart disease! Take up other stress-reducing exercises, such as yoga, tai chi, listening to music, hanging out with friends and family, spending more time in nature and spending less time on a screen.
In conclusion, don’t look at saturated fat and cholesterol like Western Medicine tells you. Look at oxidation, inflammation, deficiency and stress. Remember that everything has a cause and effect. You don’t just magically get heart disease for no reason. You have a lot of control over it. Decide carefully what you put into your body. Make wise lifestyle choices. Don’t buy into AHA propaganda that all saturated fat and cholesterol are the bad guys. Likewise, don’t buy into similar Big Pharma propaganda that statins will relieve you of heart disease, since they actually rob you of your vitality.
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Makia Freeman is the editor of alternative media / independent news site The Freedom Articles and senior researcher at ToolsForFreedom.com, writing on many aspects of truth and freedom, from exposing aspects of the worldwide conspiracy to suggesting solutions for how humanity can create a new system of peace and abundance. Makia is on Steemit and FB.
It’s a comprehensive primer in the relatively young field of positive psychology, with a particular focus on young adults. The book, which closely follows the structure of his popular, in-demand undergraduate course “Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness,” offers explanations of factors that contribute to happiness.
Based on his own research and other scientific studies, Bono offers the following tips for getting and staying happier in the coming year:
1) Get outside, move around, take a walk. Research confirms that a few minutes of exercise in nature can boost both mood and energy levels. Exercise is key to our psychological health because it releases the brain’s “feel good” chemicals.
2) Get more happiness for your money. Studies show little connection between wealth and happiness, but there are two ways to get more bang for your happiness buck — buy experiences instead of things and spend your money on others. The enjoyment one gets from an experience like a vacation or concert will far outweigh and outlast the happiness from acquiring another material possession. Doing good things for other people strengthens our social connections, which is foundational to our well-being.
3) Carve out time to be happy, then give it away. People dream of finding an extra 30 minutes to do something nice for themselves, but using that time to help someone else is more rewarding and actually leaves us feeling empowered to tackle the next project, helping us feel more in control of our lives and even less pressed for time. This translates to higher levels of happiness and satisfaction.
4) Delay the positive, dispatch the negative. Anticipation itself is pleasurable, and looking forward to an enjoyable experience can make it all that much sweeter. Wait a couple of days before seeing a new movie that just came out, plan your big vacation for later in the summer and try to take time to savor each bite of dessert. On the flip side, get negative tasks out of the way as quickly as possible — anticipation will only make them seem worse.
5) Enjoy the ride. People who focus more on process than outcome tend to remain motivated in the face of setbacks. They’re better at sticking with major challenges and prefer them over the easy route. This “growth mindset” helps people stay energized because it celebrates rewards that come from the work itself. Focusing only on the outcome can lead to premature burnout if things don’t go well.
6) Embrace failure. How we think about failure determines whether it makes us happy or sad. People who overcome adversity do better in life because they learn to cope with challenges. Failure is a great teacher, helping us realize what doesn’t work so we can make changes for the better. As IBM CEO Thomas Watson once said, “If you want to increase your success rate, double your failure rate.”
8) Sweet dreams. Get a full night’s sleep on a regular basis. Our brains are doing a lot of important work while we sleep, including strengthening neural circuits that enhance mental acuity and help us to regulate our moods when we are awake. Sleep deprivation can lead to cognitive impairment similar to that of intoxication, and often is the prelude to an ill-tempered day.
9) Strengthen your willpower muscles. Just like exercising arm muscles strengthens our capacity to lift heavy things, exercising willpower muscles in small, everyday behaviors strengthens our ability to stay focused at work. Resist the temptation to check the cellphone for new text messages or emails while walking somewhere, or resist the temptation to get the candy bar when in the checkout line at the grocery store. That will allow willpower muscles to become stronger and, in turn, resistant to temptations that could sidetrack us in other aspects of our lives.
10) Introduce variety into your day-to-day activities. Human beings are attracted to novelty, and we can get bored if we have to do the same thing over and over. Changing things up every once in a while by taking on new projects, or by doing the same task but with music in the background, or by interacting with different people, can be one way to introduce variety and remain motivated to complete a task.
11) Stop comparing yourself to others. It’s hard to avoid tuning into what everyone else is doing, who just got the latest raise or promotion, or who’s moving into a new house or going on a fancy vacation. But social comparison is one of the biggest barriers to our overall happiness and motivation. Redirecting attention to our own internal standards for success and making progress based on what’s realistic for us — instead of getting caught up in how we measure up to others — can go a long way for our psychological health and productivity.
12) Reach out and connect with someone. Nothing is more important for our psychological health than high-quality friendships. Find an activity that allows you to get together with friends on a regular, ongoing basis. A weekly happy hour, poker night or TV show ensures consistency and momentum in your social interactions. People with high-quality relationships are not only happier, they’re also healthier. They recover from illnesses more quickly, live longer and enjoy more enriched lives.
13) Limit time on social media. Facebook and Instagram often exaggerate how much better off others are compared with how we might feel about ourselves at the moment. Many studies have shown that too much time spent on social media usually is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, optimism and motivation while leaving people feeling — ironically enough — less socially connected to others.
14) Seek the beauty in all things. Our world is overwhelmed with distrust, antagonism, anger and fear. Reflect on why things bother you, use introspection and talk to more compassionate sources regarding all of the things that make you feel uncomfortable, it will allow you to see the beauty in them.
15) Use your phone in the way phones were originally intended. The next time you are tempted to use your phone to scroll through social media, scroll through your list of contacts instead. Find someone to call or FaceTime. The happiness you derive from an authentic connection with another person will be far greater than any comments or likes you get on social media.
16) Practice gratitude. It’s easy to get bogged down with life’s inevitable hassles, so make an effort to direct attention to things that are still going well. On the way home from work, fill the time that could go toward ruminating over bad parts of your day with the things that went well. Study after study has shown gratitude to be one of the simplest yet most robust ways to increase psychological well-being.
17) Identify an important reason why you are resolving to change something in your life (e.g., “I’m doing it for my kids” or “This is to improve my overall health”). Research shows that reminding yourself of how your daily behaviors fit into big-picture goals will keep you motivated to stay on track.
18) Acknowledge potential barriers that might get in the way of implementing your goals (you might get lazy, tired, forget or be lured away by another temptation), and then identify contingency plans for how you will respond in those moments: “When I start getting distracted in the middle of a big work project, I’ll give myself a quick break and then remind myself how rewarding it will feel to be finished with it.” Better yet, select environments that are free from distractions altogether. If you know you’re always tempted to surf the web while completing work, take your laptop to a place where there’s no wifi and leave your phone behind.
19) Set specific dates and times when you will incorporate the behavior — when you make a schedule for new behaviors you’d like to incorporate into your life, they require less psychological strength to implement. When you get in the habit of running every Tuesday and Thursday morning, the behavior becomes much easier to initiate because it simply becomes part of your routine, like brushing your teeth or taking the dog on a walk.
20) Make your goals measurable, break them up into smaller sub-goals, and the reward yourself each time you hit a particular milestone. If your goal is to lose 50 pounds in the new year, treat yourself to a movie or other fun outing for each five pounds you lose.
Moving up and down the social ladder has long been thought to be stressful, but a new study shows that it has no impact on general health.
Social mobility is seen as an essential societal goal – one that occupies most democratic governments. But moving up and down the social ladder can be very stressful, and it is well documented that long-lasting or repeated stress is bad for your health. Until now, though, no one has tried to quantify the health impact of social mobility. In our latest study we set out to redress this knowledge gap. But, before we get to that, a bit of background.
It was a Russian-born sociologist, Pitirim Sorokin, who first wrote about the stress of social mobility. Sorokin lived a life full of mobility. Born to a peasant mother and a manual-worker father, he ended up founding Harvard’s sociology department. He was a professor there until his death in 1968. In his eventful life, he had also been a farmhand, artisan, factory worker, clerk, teacher, choir conductor, revolutionary, political prisoner, journalist, student, newspaper editor and secretary to the Russian prime minister.
In 1927, Sorokin claimed that mobility made the “nervous systems crumble under the burden of great strains required”. He had no systematic data to substantiate this claim, but we assume he based it on his own not inconsiderable experience. Today academics and other high flyers still talk about feelings of “class dissociation”, to use Sorkin’s phrase.
One problem with finding out whether social mobility is a stressful experience is that it is such a complex thing. It’s made up of three parts: the social class of your parents (your origin), your social class now (the destination), and the trajectory of movement between the two.
It is already known that those in higher classes often live less stressful lives than those at the bottom. For our study, published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, we wanted to know whether social mobility has an effect over and above origin class and destination class.
A second part of the puzzle was how to measure the consequences of social mobility. Many previous studies used subjective or self-rated measures of well-being. One common criticism of these approaches is that people may adjust their expectations to their new class position – so-called “adaptive preferences”. To overcome this, we used more objective data from a long-term study of thousands of British people whose health was assessed by nurses and who had a blood sample taken.
Based on this information, we calculated their “allostatic load”, which is a measure of wear and tear on the body resulting from chronic stress. This summary measure includes indicators such as blood pressure, waist circumference, cholesterol and inflammatory markers. A heavy allostatic load puts a person at increased risk of a range of health problems, from type 2 diabetes to heart disease.
The results of our analysis showed that both origin and destination class matter. In fact, it seems that they each exert around the same level of influence. This means that your social class during childhood has a long reach and you cannot escape the health consequences of your social origins, even after climbing the social ladder all the way to the top.
For those starting at the bottom and climbing to the top, their allostatic load will be of an average level, but far above the level of people who started out in a higher class and remained there. The worst outcomes are among those for whom both origin and destination are the working class, while those falling down the ladder from higher origins will be somewhat protected by their origin.
We also found that social mobility by itself has no impact on your health. There is no systematic effect of mobility on allostatic load in one direction or another. Your current class matters, and your class during childhood matters, but mobility itself does not cause the wear and tear that is bad for your health.
Equal opportunity is an ideal that many believe in, and governments promise to facilitate social mobility for their citizens. But social mobility does not only entail climbing the economic ladder, for some, it also means falling down. Our study showed that being on top is better for your health than being at the bottom, yet neither falling down nor moving up causes long-lasting or repeated stress.
If you’re feeling stressed out, welcome to the club. Statistics show that stress in general, as well as extreme levels of stress, are both on the rise in the United States — and many people feel they’re simply not doing enough to manage that stress.
There are plenty of tried-and-true methods that can help people de-stress – such as exercise, socializing, and participating in hobbies – but there is one very powerful stress management technique that has slipped under the radar: adding prebiotics to the diet.
While probiotics have been getting a lot of much-deserved attention lately for their significant health benefits, prebiotics have been largely glossed over for some reason. Probiotics are the good bacteria that are found in fermented foods, whereas prebiotics serve as the food for this “good” gut bacteria. Prebiotics might be lesser known than probiotics, but they are no less powerful.
According to persuasive research from the University of Colorado Boulder, prebiotics can help manage stress by altering the structure of the brain in constructive ways.
The researchers divided three-week-old male rats into groups and gave some standard chow, while others got chow with prebiotics in it. They then measured how their diets impacted their behavior using tests such as open field tests, which assess anxiety levels by measuring how much time the animals are willing to spend in open areas. They also used EEG brain activity testing to monitor the animals’ sleep/wake cycles, as well as their gut bacteria and body temperature.
They found that not only where the supplemented animals less anxious, but they also slept better than the control group. The mice who took prebiotics spent more time in the restful and restorative non-REM sleep then those that did not take prebiotics. The researchers also say that the dietary prebiotics can improve sleep in the REM and non-REM stages after stressful events.
Adding even more significance to the findings was the fact that the regions in the brain associated with brain plasticity actually increased in size in those rats that were fed prebiotics. Even though this particular trial specifically examined brain development in young animals, the researchers say that they believe prebiotic ingredients can protect people of any age from stress.
Some good natural sources of prebiotic include artichokes, leeks, onions, raw garlic, and chicory. When gut bacteria digest the prebiotic fibers found in these food, it causes them to multiply, which has the effect of improving get health overall. It also releases byproducts that can impact brain function.
Fortunately, prebiotics are heat-resistant, which means cooking foods that contain them won’t destroy them and they will reach your intestine without being affected by the digestion process.
The prospect of getting rid of stress is probably more than enough to send you the grocery store in search of food that contains prebiotics. However, you might also like to know that they have plenty of other beneficial effects for your body. For example, because they improve the gut microbiome, they can help combat constipation and diarrhea, prevent inflammatory bowel disease, help with intestinal cell detoxification, and increase nutrient absorption.
One particular type of prebiotic called resistant starch has been shown to help stabilize blood glucose levels, reduce appetite, encourage weight loss, and increase sensitivity to insulin. However, it’s important to keep in mind at this only applies to natural resistant starches and not those made with chemical processes. Resistant starch can be found in unripe bananas and plantains; potatoes and legumes that have been cooked and then cooled; potato starch; and cassava powder.
Adopting a healthy habit to help manage stress is a win-win situation for your mind and your body.
Scientists have discovered that procrastination could be threatening your overall health. If you put things off frequently and for the wrong reasons, you could be at risk for debilitating health conditions such as cardiovascular disease and hypertension.
According to Entrepreneur, some of the negative consequences of procrastination are known by firsthand experience; we wait too long to start a project, or delay that important phone call, then end up feeling more pressure than we would have had we started things sooner. But that stress on the body while in rushed mode can actually cause health issues.
In our youth, most of us are taught to avoid procrastination because the practice leaves us with less time and more pressure, and those issues certainly aren’t good. But, later in life, the consequences of procrastination might go even further than we realize. Research by Fuschia Sirois, from Bishop’s University in Quebec, suggests that trait procrastination (the tendency to regularly delay important tasks) is correlated with both hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The correlation exists even when researchers control for variables like age, race, education level, and personality factors.
This means it isn’t the procrastination that actually adversely affects your overall health and well-being, it’s your body’s response to the added stress of rushing to finish a job in a short amount of time. Sirois’s study also noted the tendency for participants to demonstrate behavioral disengagement; in other words, they procrastinate as a way to distance themselves from a given problem. It’s a coping strategy, and not a healthy one, so chronic procrastinators aren’t able to manage their stress effectively.
Procrastinators also tend to feel bad after procrastinating, understanding that this is a bad habit and knowing they’ve put themselves in a difficult situation. But that self-blame can make them even more stressed. Stress is known to be hard on the body.
Even though procrastination’s additional stress-related health consequences are impossible to ignore, it’s not fair to cast all instances in a negative light. For example, one study from the Journal of Social Psychology noted two distinct types of procrastinators: active and passive. How much your body reacts to the stress will depend on which type of procrastination you most often display.
Passiveprocrastinators delay tasks until absolutely necessary because they find themselves unable to summon the discipline to do them sooner. Activeprocrastinators intentionally decide to delay their work as a time-management strategy. While active procrastinators spend the same amount of time putting things off, they display a more productive use of time and more adaptive coping skills, since they are only doing it to manage their available time. Passive procrastinators often simply don’t want to do the task at hand making the stress compound once they actually begin. Therefore, passive procrastinators often suffer the negative health effects to a greater capacity, says the research.
Understanding the consequences of procrastination, and fighting back against the habits that make you more susceptible to it will keep you productive and in better overall health. If you find yourself a habitual procrastinator and a passive one at that, take steps to help yourself overcome this habit. It could help lower your stress and leave you feeling healthier and more vibrant.
“Our citizens should know the urgent facts…but they don’t because our media serves imperial, not popular interests. They lie, deceive, connive and suppress what everyone needs to know, substituting managed news misinformation and rubbish for hard truths…”—Oliver Stone