Behold, an extremely confusing flow chart, from a 2005 study, showing how fiber leads to greater satiety, less insulin secretion, and more short-chain fatty acids, which all amounts to one thing: Less body weight.
Dec 20, 2017
At one point or another, we’ve all made a long list of New Year’s resolutions to improve our health and lost weight. Most of these resolutions will fail because support systems are not in place from the start. However a different type of resolution, one for your gut bugs is far more effective than any strategy for weight loss.
There are over 400 species of bacteria in your belly right now that can be the key to health or disease.
The genomes of the bacteria and viruses of the human gut alone are thought to encode 3.3 million genes.
At this very moment, there are trillions of bacteria living in your body — the majority in your gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Collectively, these bacteria are known as the microbiome. The bulk of them are symbiotic — in other words, mutually beneficial. We help our microbiome survive and it helps us survive. Researchers are continually uncovering diverse and important functions of the microbiome related to energy metabolism, immunity, GI and mental health — among others.
Weight loss resolutions are relevant in this regard, since the gut microbiome affects the rate of absorption, metabolism and storage of calories. For example, specific bacterial strains, such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, shift during obesity — potentially increasing energy harvest from food. Ai-Ling Lin, assistant professor at the UK Sanders Brown Center on Aging, is investigating the impact of the microbiome on the aging brain and mental health. Her research findings demonstrate a healthy microbiome is associated with reduced anxiety and risk for dementia with aging. A well-known role of the gut microbiome is protection of the GI tract’s health and function. This is why some antibiotics can cause loose stools or diarrhea. Of note, probiotic supplementation has been shown to be effective in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
Maximize your beneficial and defensive features of the microbiome by nourishing and protecting it, every single day. Here are some tips to nurture the good bugs within during the coming year:
Choose Complex Carbohydrates
A primary source of energy for the microbiome is complex carbohydrates. Vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds and nuts are sources of resistant starch and dietary fiber — also known as “prebiotics.” Prebiotic-rich foods (not refined, sugary foods) give gut bugs plenty of fuel to flourish.
Include Natural Probiotics In Your Diet
Enrich the microbiome with a serving of yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut or fermented vegetables regularly. Beyond vitamins and minerals, these foods are rich sources of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which may boost immunity and overall health. Effects of probiotics vary from person to person, since everyone’s microbiome is unique.
Get Plenty of Sleep
Even gut bugs need a good night’s rest. The microbiome shifts in composition and function during the light versus dark-hours of the day. Research indicates that irregular circadian rhythms (associated with jet lag in frequent flyers, for example) leads to shifts in the microbiome associated with metabolic changes. Taking steps toward a good night’s sleep will safeguard your gut bugs’ health and functionality.
Cultured dairy products like yogurt, acidophilus milk, buttermilk, sour cream, cottage cheese and kefir are the best known food sources of friendly bacteria. Equally effective probiotic food sources include cultured/fermented vegetables (cabbage, turnips, eggplant, cucumbers, onions, squash, and carrots). Other, lesser known or used food sources of probiotics are sauerkraut and sourdough breads. Ideally, one could get a good supply of probiotics from one or more of these diverse foodstuffs. If dietary sources are not easily available, supplemental probiotic powders and capsules are good alternatives. Choose a brand that has at least 3 different strains of friendly bacteria and between 6 — 15 billion live organisms.
With permission from
by: Rita Winters
Sunday, December 10, 2017
(Natural News) Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder wherein a person displays abnormal social behavior and a failure to differentiate between reality and fantasy. More often than not, schizophrenic individuals have yeast infections, but researchers still do not know why. These yeast infections, caused by Candida albicans found in human gut flora, do not cause mental illness per se, but appear to be strongly related to mental disorders. A study published in the May 1, 2017 issue of Brain, Behavior and Immunity backs the growing evidence of the relationship between mind and gut.
The study, led by Emily Severance, Ph.D., shows that adding probiotics to patients’ diets may treat yeast infections and ease their bowel problems. Individuals who have schizophrenia but do not have yeast infections experience a decrease in delusions and hallucinations. The research entitled “Probiotic normalization of Candida albicans in schizophrenia: A randomized, placebo-controlled, longitudinal pilot study” was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the Stanley Medical Research Institute.
There were 56 adult participants in the study, 19 of which were female, and 61 percent of which were white. At the beginning of the trials, blood samples were collected from the participants and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) exam was administered. Each individual took a placebo pill once a day for two weeks. They were then split into two groups so that neither the researchers nor the participants could determine who would be given a real probiotic treatment or a placebo in the next 14 weeks. The probiotics administered contained one billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis in each pill. Every two week, PANSS scores were reassessed, as well as the ease of their bowel movements. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected once more. The blood samples were analyzed to measure the antibody levels related to the yeasts in the participants’ bodies, before and after the probiotic treatment. Both Saccharomyces cerevisae (Brewer’s yeast) and Candida albicans (that causes yeast infections) are elevated in people suffering from schizophrenia.
Results from the trials showed that there was a decrease by 43 percent, over time, in the 22 men taking probiotics. On the other hand, only a three percent decrease of antibodies in the 15 men taking the placebo. The antibody levels for Brewer’s yeast did not change during the study, even those individuals who took the probiotics. There were no significant effects of probiotics treatment in women. PANSS scores overall showed a decrease from 24 to 19.5. It was found that delusions and hallucinations are more common in men with both schizophrenia and yeast infections. Individuals with both those conditions also had greater memory problems. The biggest changes in psychiatric symptoms were the men, treated with probiotics, who did not have elevated levels of yeast in their gut.
The researchers from John Hopkins Medicine and Sheppard Pratt Health System caution that there is a need for larger and more precise studies to validate their findings about the relationship between gut microbes and mental disorders. The mental health field is already in dire need of new treatments for psychiatric disorders, given that these available medications cause too many negative side effects in patients, or are not effective at all. Probiotics may only cost $1 a day, but not everyone can be treated with it, since it should not be given to people with weak immune systems such as individuals with HIV. Furthermore, probiotics can cause gas and bloating in some people.
Other studies on mental disorders show that healthy nutrition positively impacts individuals with mental disorders. There may be a chance to reduce the risk of having these chronic psychiatric disorders through good food and healthier lifestyles, instead of laboratory-created chemical medications.
A diet high in beneficial fats may help stem the growth of harmful gut bacteria that trigger the onset of Crohn’s disease.
by: Russel Davis
December 08, 2017
(Natural News) A diet high in beneficial fats may help stem the growth of harmful gut bacteria that trigger the onset of Crohn’s disease, according to a study carried out by a team of researchers at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio. Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel syndrome that is characterized by intestinal cramps, diarrhea, and debilitating inflammation of the intestinal tract. The disease currently affects up to half a million people across the U.S. However, the scientific community maintains that the cause of the disease remains unclear, the experts report.
The research team examined the effects of plant-derived beneficial fats — such as coconut oil or cocoa butter — on animal models as part of the study. The scientists observed that the good fats significantly reduced the bacterial diversity in mice with Crohn’s-like disease. According to the researchers, mice models that are subjected to beneficial fatty diets exhibited up to 30 percent fewer kinds of gut bacteria compared with those that followed a normal diet. This in turn led to a relatively different gut microbiome composition in the animal models, the experts added.
The scientists observed that the marked changes in gut bacterial composition could be seen in the animals’ feces. Likewise, other altered bacterial species were observed in the cecum, a portion of the intestine that usually becomes swollen in Crohn’s disease patients. The research team also observed that even modest levels of beneficial fats may still promote gut health. According to the researchers, mice given low concentrations of coconut oil or cocoa butter exhibited less severe inflammation in the small intestine.
“The finding is remarkable because it means that a Crohn’s patient could also have a beneficial effect on their gut bacteria and inflammation by only switching the type of fat in their diet. Patients would only need to replace a ‘bad’ fat with a ‘good’ fat, and eat normal amounts,” says Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, study author and an assistant professor of medicine at the university.
The findings may help health care providers identify target bacteria to use in probiotics treatment to alleviate inflammatory bowel syndromes in affected patients, Rodriguez-Palacios says.
“Ongoing studies are now helping us to understand which component of the ‘good’ and ‘bad’ fats make the difference in the gut microbes and make mice healthier. Ultimately, we aim to identify the ‘good’ fat-loving microbes for testing as probiotics,” Rodriguez-Palacios adds.
However, the expert has also cautioned that the findings may have varying effects on Crohn’s disease patients.
“Not all ‘good’ fats might be good in all patients. Mice indicate that each person could respond differently. But diet is something we are very hopeful could help at least some patients without the side-effects and risks carried by drugs. The trick now is to really discover what makes a fat ‘good’ or ‘bad’ for Crohn’s disease,” the expert explains.
The findings were presented at the annual Digestive Disease Week conference in Chicago in June 2017. The study serves as a pioneering research on the correlation between gut microbiome changes and overall intestinal health in Crohn’s disease patients. The study is also the first to demonstrate how high-fat diets can change gut bacteria composition in order to keep inflammation at bay. In addition, the research is one of the six studies accepted for scientific conference presentation that have been produced by the university.
A new study mirrors earlier research showing that suicidal thoughts and major depressive episodes have a strong correlation to brain inflammation, New Atlas reports. The findings also agree with post-mortems of suicidal patients, which showed inflammation in their brains. Researchers said this may be a new use for anti-inflammatory drugs.
Although multiple factors are likely to blame, with cases of suicide rising in the U.S. every year, these new findings certainly deserve attention, as inflammation is a known cause of numerous physical and mental conditions. Gut inflammation, for example, is known to be a cause of symptoms of depression.
From that end, scientific advances suggest your state of mind is strongly influenced by the microflora in your gut, and that probiotics (beneficial bacteria) can alleviate symptoms of depression. But, while a probiotic supplement may be helpful, it’s unlikely to make a significant difference if you’re still eating junk.
Dietary keys include limiting sugars and gluten, and increasing healthy fats, omega-3, fiber and fermented foods rich in natural probiotics. Sugar, especially, is a known inflammatory that has already been linked to depression. Unfortunately, many are under the mistaken belief they can protect their health by swapping refined sugar for artificial sweeteners – something you just don’t want to do.
One simple way to dramatically reduce your sugar intake is to replace processed foods with real whole foods. Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety, an effect ascribed to antioxidants that help combat inflammation in your body. Certain nutrients are also known to cause symptoms of depression when lacking, so it’s important to eat a varied whole food diet.
If you are feeling desperate or have any thoughts of suicide, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, a toll-free number 1-800-273-TALK (8255), or call 911, or simply go to your nearest hospital emergency department.
Comment: For more on the dietary links between diet and depression see:
Photo Credit: PsyPost/Creative Commons
- The endocannabinoid system plays a major role in Parkinson’s Disease (PD).
- PD is associated with impairment of motor control after the loss of 60-80% of dopamine-producing neurons in a critical brain region.
- Digestive imbalance may play a role in the advancement of PD & the severity of symptoms.
- Cannabinoids have neuroprotectant, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which can be beneficial for managing PD.
- Various combinations of CBD, THC, and THCV may provide relief for Parkinson’s symptoms.
Scientists at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Kentucky have identified a previously unknown molecular target of cannabidiol (CBD), which may have significant therapeutic implications for Parkinson’s Disease (PD).
A poster by Zhao-Hui Song and Alyssa S. Laun at the 2017 meeting of the International Cannabinoid Research Society in Montreal disclosed that CBD activates a G-coupled protein receptor called “GPR6” that is highly expressed in the basal ganglia region of the brain. GPR6 is considered an “orphan receptor” because researchers have yet to find the primary endogenous compound that binds to this receptor.(1)
It has been shown that a depletion of GPR6 causes an increase of dopamine, a critical neurotransmitter, in the brain. This finding suggests GPR6 could have a role in the treatment of Parkinson’s, a chronic, neurodegenerative disease that entails the progressive loss of dopaminergic (dopamine-producing) neurons and consequent impairment of motor control. By acting as an “inverse agonist” at the GPR6receptor, CBD boosts dopamine levels in preclinical studies.
Parkinson’s affects an estimated 10 million people worldwide, including one million Americans. It is the second most common neurological disorder (after Alzheimer’s Disease). Over 96 percent of those diagnosed with PD are over 50 years old with men being one-and-a-half times more likely to have PD than women. Uncontrolled PD significantly reduces the patient’s quality of life and can render a person unable to care for themselves, trapped in a body they cannot control.
Parkinson’s Disease is most associated with compromised motor function after the loss of 60-80% of dopamine-producing neurons. As dopaminergic neurons become damaged or die and the brain is less able to produce adequate amounts of dopamine, patients may experience any one or combination of these classic PD motor symptoms: tremor of the hands, arms, legs or jaw; muscle rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; slowness of movement (bradykinesia); and /or impaired balance and coordination (postural instability).
Additional symptoms include decreased facial expressions, dementia or confusion, fatigue, sleep disturbances, depression, constipation, cognitive changes, fear, anxiety, and urinary problems. Pesticide exposure and traumatic brain injury are linked to increased risk for PD. Paraquat, an herbicide sprayed by the DEA in anti-marijuana defoliant operations in the United States and other countries, resembles a toxicant MPTP [methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridien], which is used to simulate animal models of Parkinson’s for research purposes.(2)
Within the PD brain there are an inordinate number of Lewy bodies – intracellular aggregates of difficult to break down protein clusters – that cause dysfunction and demise of neurons.(3) This pathological process results in difficulties with thinking, movement, mood and behavior. The excessive presence of Lewy bodies, coupled with the deterioration of dopaminergic neurons, are considered to be hallmarks of Parkinson’s. But mounting evidence suggests that these aberrations are actually advanced-stage manifestations of a slowly evolving pathology.
It appears that non-motor symptoms occur for years before the disease progresses to the brain, and that PD is actually a multi-system disorder, not just a neurological ailment, which develops over a long period of time. According to the National Parkinson’s Foundation, motor symptoms of PD only begin to manifest when most of the brain’s dopamine-producing cells are already damaged.
Patients whose PD is diagnosed at an early stage have a better chance of slowing disease progression. The most common approach to treating PD is with oral intake of L-dopa, the chemical precursor to dopamine. But in some patients, long-term use of L-dopa will exacerbate PD symptoms. Unfortunately, there is no cure – yet.
What causes Parkinson’s? One theory that is gaining favor among medical scientists traces the earliest signs of PD to the enteric nervous system (the gut), the medulla (the brainstem), and the olfactory bulb in the brain, which controls one’s sense of smell. New research shows that the quality of bacteria in the gut – the microbiome – is strongly implicated in the advancement of Parkinson’s, the severity of symptoms, and related mitochondrial dysfunction.
Defined as “the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body,” the microbiome consists of “a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses.” Bacteria, both good and bad, influence mood, gut motility, and brain health. There is a strong connection between the microbiome and the endocannabinoid system: Gut microbiota modulate intestinal endocannabinoid tone, and endocannabinoid signaling mediates communication between the central and the enteric nervous systems, which comprise the gut-brain axis.
Viewed as “the second brain,” the enteric nervous system consists of a mesh-like web of neurons that covers the lining of the digestive tract – from mouth to anus and everything in between. The enteric nervous system generates neurotransmitters and nutrients, sends signals to the brain, and regulates gastrointestinal activity. It also plays a major role in inflammation.
The mix of microorganisms that inhabit the gut and the integrity of the gut lining are fundamental to overall health and the ability of the gut-brain axis to function properly. If the lining of the gut is weak or unhealthy, it becomes more permeable and allows things to get into the blood supply that should not be there, negatively impacting the immune system. This is referred to as “leaky gut.” Factor in an overgrowth of harmful bacteria and a paucity of beneficial bacteria and you have a recipe for a health disaster.
The importance of a beneficial bacteria in the gut and a well-balanced microbiome cannot be overstated. Bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, for example, has been associated with worsening PD motor function. In a 2017 article in the European Journal of Pharmacology, titled “The gut-brain axis in Parkinson’s disease: Possibilities for food-based therapies,” Peres-Pardo et al examine the interplay between gut dysbiosis and Parkinson’s. The authors note that “PD pathogenesis may be caused or exacerbated by dysbiotic microbiota-induced inflammatory responses … in the intestine and the brain.”(4)
Mitochondria, microbiota and marijuana
The microbiome also plays an important role in the health of our mitochondria, which are present in every cell in the brain and body (except red blood cells). Mitochondria function not only as the cell’s power plant; they also are involved in regulating cell repair and cell death. Dysfunction of the mitochondria, resulting in high levels of oxidative stress, is intrinsic to PD neurodegeneration. Microbes produce inflammatory chemicals in the gut that seep into the bloodstream and damage mitochondria, contributing to disease pathogenesis not only in PD but many neurological and metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s.
The evidence that gut dysbiosis can foster the development of PD raises the possibility that those with the disease could benefit by manipulating their intestinal bacteria and improving their microbiome. Enhancing one’s diet with fermented foods and probiotic supplements may improve gut health and relieve constipation, while also reducing anxiety, depression and memory problems that afflict PD patients.
Cannabis therapeutics may also help to manage PD symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Acclaimed neurologist Sir William Gowers was the first to mention cannabis as a treatment for tremors in 1888. In his Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System, Grower noted that oral consumption of an “Indian hemp” extract quieted tremors temporarily, and after a year of chronic use the patient’s tremors nearly ceased.
Modern scientific research supports the notion that cannabis could be beneficial in reducing inflammation and assuaging symptoms of PD, as well as mitigating disease progression to a degree. Federally-funded preclinical probes have documented the robust antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of CBD and THC with “particular application … in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia.” Published in 1998, these findings formed the basis of a U.S. government patent on cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants.
Pot for Parkinson’s
Although clinical studies focusing specifically on the use of plant cannabinoids to treat PD are limited (because of marijuana prohibition) and convey conflicting results, in aggregate they provide insight into how cannabis may aid those with Parkinson’s. Cannabidiol, THC, and especially THCV all showed sufficient therapeutic promise for PD in preclinical studies to warrant further investigation. Additional research might shed light on which plant cannabinoids, or combination thereof, is most appropriate for different stages of Parkinson’s.
Anecdotal accounts from PD patients using artisanal cannabis preparations indicate that cannabinoid acids (present in unheated whole plant cannabis products) may reduce PD tremor and other motor symptoms. Raw cannabinoid acids (such as CBDA and THCA) are the chemical precursors to neutral, “activated” cannabinoids (CBD, THC). Cannabinoid acids become neutral cannabinoid compounds through a process called decarboxylation, where they lose their carboxyl group through aging or heat. Minimal research has focused on cannabinoid acids, but the evidence thus far suggests that THCA and CBDA have powerful therapeutic attributes, including anti-inflammatory, anti-nausea, anti-cancer, and anti-seizure properties. In a 2004 survey of cannabis use among patients at the Prague Movement Disorder Centre in the Czech Republic, 45 percent of respondents reported improvement in PD motor symptoms.
Cannabis clinicians are finding that dosage regimens for medical marijuana patients with PD don’t conform to a one-size-fits-all approach. In her book Cannabis Revealed (2016), Dr. Bonni Goldstein discussed how varied a PD patient’s response to cannabis and cannabis therapeutics can be:
“A number of my patients with PD have reported the benefits of using different methods of delivery and different cannabinoid profiles. Some patients have found relief of tremors with inhaled THC and other have not. A few patients have found relief with high doses of CBD-rich cannabis taken sublingually. Some patients are using a combination of CBD and THC … Trial and error is needed to find what cannabinoid profile and method will work best. Starting a low-dose and titrating up is recommended, particularly with THC-rich cannabis. Unfortunately, THCV-rich varieties are not readily available.”
Juan Sanchez-Ramos M.D., PhD, a leader in the field of movement disorders and the Medical Director for the Parkinson Research Foundation, told Project CBD that he encourages his patients to begin with a 1:1 THC:CBD ratio product if they can get it. In a book chapter on “Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Movement Disorders,” he and coauthor Briony Catlow, PhD, describe the dosage protocol used for various research studies that provided statistically positive results and a dosing baseline for PD. This data was included in a summary of dosing regimens from various studies compiled by Dr. Ethan Russo:
- 300 mg/day of CBD significantly improved quality of life but had no positive effect on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. (Lotan I, 2014)
- 0.5 g of smoked cannabis resulted in significant improvement in tremor and bradykinesia as well as sleep. (Venderová K, 2004)
- 150 mg of CBD oil titrated up over four weeks resulted in decreased psychotic symptoms. (Chagas MH, 2014)
- 75-300 mg of oral CBD improved REM-behavior sleep disorder. (Zuardi AW, 2009)
A threshold dose
Of course, each patient is different, and cannabis therapeutics is personalized medicine. Generally speaking, an optimal therapeutic combination will include a synergistic mix of varying amounts of CBDand THC – although PD patients with sleep disturbances may benefit from a higher THC ratio at night.
Dr. Russo offers cogent advice for patients with PD and other chronic conditions who are considering cannabis therapy. “In general,” he suggests, “2.5 mg of THC is a threshold dose for most patients without prior tolerance to its effects, while 5 mg is a dose that may be clinically effective at a single administration and is generally acceptable, and 10 mg is a prominent dose, that may be too high for naïve and even some experienced subjects. These figures may be revised upward slightly if the preparation contains significant CBD content … It is always advisable to start at a very low dose and titrate upwards slowly.”
For information about nutritional supplementation to help manage PD, visit the Life Extension Foundation Parkinson’s page.
Lifestyle Modifications for PD Patients
It is important to treat the patient as a whole – mind, body and soul. The following are a few lifestyle modifications that may provide relief from PD symptoms and improve quality of life.
- Do cardio aerobic exercise: This benefits the body in so many ways, including stimulating the production of one’s endocannabinoids, increasing oxygen in the blood supply, mitigating the negative impact of oxidative stress, and boosting the production of BDNF, a brain-protecting chemical found to be low in PD patients.
- Eat more fruits and vegetables: The old saying “garbage in, garbage out” is so true. The majority of PD patients suffer from chronic constipation. A high fiber diet can be helpful in improving gut motility and facilitating daily bowel movements.
- Get restful sleep: Not getting good sleep can undermine one’s immune function, cognition and quality of life. The importance of adequate restful sleep cannot be over emphasized.
- Reduce protein intake – This may help reduce the accumulation of protein bodies that result in Lewy bodies that appear in the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system and increase the uptake of L-dopa.
- Practice meditation, yoga or Tai Chi: The focus on the integration of movement and breath not only improve mobility but it also improves cognition and immunity. One study showed an increase in grey matter density in the areas of the brain associated with PD. Another showed that yoga improved balance, flexibility, posture and gait in PD patients. Research shows that tai chi can improve balance, gait, functional mobility, and overall well being.
- Consume probiotic food and supplements: Probiotic foods — raw garlic, raw onions, bananas, asparagus, yams, sauerkraut, etc.— are a great source for the good bacteria in your large intestine. Augmenting your diet with probiotic supplements, especially after taking antibiotics, can support the immune system by helping to repopulate the upper digestive tract with beneficial bacteria. Consult your doctor regarding a recommendation for a quality probiotic.
- Drink coffee: The risk of PD is considerably lower for men who consume coffee daily.
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(1) An inverse agonist binds directly to a receptor and modifies it in a way that causes the receptor to have the opposite effects of activating it normally.
(2) MPTP was found in an underground meperidine (Demerol) synthesis that caused a small epidemic of Parkinson syndrome in i.v. drug abusers in the San Francisco area in the mid-1980s.
The presence of Lewy bodies (a-synuclein protein clusters) in other parts of the body could potentially serve as an early detection marker for PD, especially in the olfactory bulb and the enteric nervous system.
(4) Peres-Prado et al analyzed gut microbiota in PD patients compared to controls and found the following:
- Prevotellaceae, a bacterium which supports the production of health-promoting short chain fatty acids (SCFA), biosynthesis of thiamine and folate, and is thought to be associated with increased gut permeability, was 78% lower in the feces of PD patients versus that of their sex-matched and age-matched controls.
- Biopsies of colonic tissue retrieved from PD patients indicate high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and other inflammatory agents.
- A lower abundance of SCFA-producing and anti-inflammatory bacteria from the class of Blautia, Coprococcus, and Roseburia were found in fecal samples of PD patients. (Paula Perez-Pardo, 2017)
- Gastric abnormalities may increase small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO is prevalent in PD patients and correlates directly to worse motor dysfunction.
- Gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS – an inflammatory toxin produce by bacteria) promotes the disruption of the blood-brain barrier.
- Impaired gherlin, a gut hormone known as the hunger hormone, is thought to be associated with maintenance and protection of dopamine function in the nigrostriatal pathway which is one of four major dopamine pathways and is particularly involved in movement. Impaired gherlin has been reported in PD patients.
With permission from
By Alanna Ketler, Guest author
July 19, 2017
I recently did the unthinkable – I stopped eating food altogether for 21 days, and you know what happened?
I healed my body, gave my digestive system a much needed rest, cleared up my candida, passed some parasites, and got my cystic acne under control – and would you believe it?
I am still here to tell the story.
I have been battling with what I had been diagnosed as having an issue of candida overgrowth – for almost two years, but now I question whether it may have just been a parasite all along.
There are tons of illnesses out there that are commonly labeled as mystery illnesses because mainstream medicine has neither discovered a cause or a cure, leaving many people in the dark when it comes to healing.
When I first learned about the Master Fast System I felt that the idea of fasting resonated with something that could help me once and for all and I was excited about the idea of challenging myself, although the recommended 40 -108 days felt like a little bit too long for me.
I decided to try out the fast, but customize it towards my needs and what I felt intuitively would help my body.
I did 21 days of the full on master fast system, which means only grape juice mixed with lemon, herbal tea and potent tinctures, daily enemas, a mixture psyllium husk powder, bentonite clay and activated charcoal mixed with grape juice and lemon this is known as plasma “pudding”and daily dry fasts (nothing at all in the system) of between 14 – 18 hours.
Won’t You Lose A Lot Of Weight?
Throughout the 21 days I lost a total of 15 pounds – a lot of which was just water weight.
As you can see from the picture, the main area that shrunk was my stomach, but it’s because it was always so bloated and uncomfortable before.
This fast has completely cleared up the bloating and swelling that was almost a constant in my life for 2 years. This is certainly what sweet relief feels like.
Isn’t Fasting Hard?
Yes. But does that mean that it’s not worth doing?
No. Of course not eating for an extended period of time isn’t easy, but that isn’t because you’re hungry, it’s because of your mental addictions to food.
It’s interesting because we feel we need to eat, but most of us don’t really realize just how addicted to food we really are because it is not only a HUGE part of our culture, but we need to eat to survive.
Not until you go without food do these addictions become apparent.
Fasting is a way to not only clear out the body and give the digestive system a break, but it also is great for clearing out the mind.
It’s amazing how clear the head is when there is nothing in the system, no stimulants or any other distractions. I found I became a lot more aware of my emotions as well.
When something comes up, and you have no escape – in the form of food or anything else, you are forced to sit with it and feel it. That was a very interesting experience throughout this whole thing as well.
I realized that we have a lot of preconceived ideas about food, we believe that we need a certain amount to be healthy, but I strongly believe that if we just tune into our body, give it what it needs, and give our digestive system a break from time to time, we will be fine.
The idea of stuffing our faces with 3 large meals a day seems absurd to me, and things like intermittent fasting actually make a lot more sense.
Is Fasting For You?
I strongly believe fasting is something everyone can benefit from.
But if you are suffering from any digestive health issues, then you especially could benefit from fasting.
There are certain ways to go about it, however, and it is important to do adequate research and choose a method that is suited towards your needs and works for you.