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June 10, 2017
Hundreds of tunnels — which date back at least 10,000 years — have been discovered in Brazil. Some of the tunnels feature mysterious claw marks’ on the walls.
“There’s no geological process in the world that produces long tunnels with a circular or elliptical cross-section, which branch and rise and fall, with claw marks on the walls,” says a geologist.
“I’ve [also] seen dozens of caves that have inorganic origins, and in these cases, it’s very clear that digging animals had no role in their creation.”
Experts in Brazil have discovered hundreds of underground tunnels which date back over 10,000 years.
Interestingly, experts believe that these mysterious tunnels were NOT carved by humans, but by an extinct ancient species.
The discovery was made by Heinrich Theodor Frank, a geologist at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul — one of the largest federal universities in Brazil.
As Heinrich was driving on the national Novo Hamburgo highway, he noticed a strange hole of around one meter in diameter at a construction site which caught his attention.
Since he was in a hurry to get home, he did not stop. However, a few weeks later he went back to the same place with his family, where he stopped and asked them to wait a moment in the car while he investigated the tunnels.
“I noticed that it was a tunnel, about 70 centimeters high and a few meters in length. The interior was full of scratches,” explains Theodor Frank to National Geographic.
“When I got home I looked for an explanation on the internet, but I did not find anything.”
“Since then I have heard that the tunnels are huge anthills or that they were created by Indians, Jesuits, slaves, revolutionaries and even bears. Some even talk about a great mythological serpent, which dug the tunnels,” he says.
Trying to get to the bottom of the mystery, Theodor Frank eventually sent some photographs to Marcelo Rasteiro, a member of the Brazilian Society of Speleology, who responded by sending an article about paleoburrows, tunnels excavated by any type of living organism in any geological age.
“For example a worm in the Cambrian, a mollusk in the Mesozoic or a rat in the Pleistocene.”
“I didn’t know there was such a thing as paleoburrows,” says Frank. “I’m a geologist, a professor, and I’d never even heard of them.”
So who could have dug those terrifying labyrinthine tunnels, with their walls covered with scratches?
“When you explore the burrows you sometimes have the feeling that there is a creature waiting for you after the next curve as if it were the lair of a prehistoric animal,” says Frank in an article published by Discovery.
Certainly, these tunnels were not created by the natives of Brazil.
“The Indians who lived in Brazil before the arrival of the Europeans did not know about the existence of iron and therefore had no tools to dig through the hard rocks in which these tunnels are dug,” explains National Geographic.
Curiously, there are hundreds of these tunnels all over Brazil, although many Curiouslyletely filled with sediment that accumulated after the tunnels were abandoned, but the entries are still distinguished in a circular or elliptical form.
Geologist Amilcar Adamy of the Brazilian Geological Survey has confirmed the discovery of a large complex of 600-meter-long tunnels in the state of Rondonia.
Furthermore, Frank notes that “in neighboring countries such as Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile and Bolivia we have detected a few caves that could also be paleoburrows. In Argentina, there are many of them, mainly in the cliffs of the Atlantic coast, in Mar del Plata.”
As noted by Alfredo Carpineti from IFLScience, over 2,000 burrows have been found, including one just last Wednesday. Scientists believe they were dug between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago, although researchers are yet to properly date them.
Frank says that speleothems, or mineral deposits, growing on burrow walls could be used to calculate an age, although that hasn’t been tried yet either.
Giant Armadillos? Mega-Sloths?
“The biggest giant armadillo had a body width of 80 centimeters, while the tunnels reach widths of 1.4 meters and in addition, the ceiling is full of scratches
“I personally believe they were excavated by land sloths, a group of mammals that became extinct in that area about 10,000 years ago,” says Frank.
“There are large tunnels up to two meters high and four meters wide that were undoubtedly excavated by sloths. We do not know the specific species, but surely the largest ones (megatheriums and eremoterios) were too large to dig,” he added.
“We also do not know what the function of the paleoburrows is, perhaps the climate is an explanation: it was drier and hotter than today and the tunnels were isothermal, but this can hardly explain the complex system of tunnels several hundred meters long, which were most likely inhabited by groups of sloths or armadillos.
“The roofs and walls of many tunnels are polished, probably thanks to the friction of the animals’ fur, which moved through the tunnels for decades or even centuries,” concluded Frank.
“So if a 90-pound animal living today digs a 16-inch by 20-foot borrow, what would dig one five feet wide and 250 feet long?” asks Frank. “There’s no explanation – not predators, not climate, not humidity. I really don’t know.”
However, as noted by Discovery, another mystery is the strange geographic distribution of the tunnels.
The so-called paleoburrows are common in southern parts of Brazil, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, they are, so far, almost unknown just to the south in Uruguay.
Furthermore, experts note that very few of them have been discovered in northern parts of Brazil, and only a handful of possible burrows have been found in other South American countries.
Source and references:
Get Lost in Mega-Tunnels Dug by South American Megafauna
This Massive Tunnel in South America Was Dug by Ancient Mega-Sloths
Cover image credit: Amilcar Adamy/CPRM
“Western journalists are sounding the alarm – America’s youth is now fascinated with the concepts of socialism and communism. According to the poll conducted by the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation (VOC), a half of all Americans under 35 years would love to be represented by a socialist president”
The University of Washington has already presented seismological charts showing a gigantic geological rift that stretches across the central states of the US from north to south, and marks the region of a possible split of the North America continent in two. As it has been reported by geologists, for the first time this anomaly was discovered in 1960’s, when scientists found a strange underground rupture along the Lake Superior that would run south. The discovery surprised American scientists back then since there were no mountains in that area. Following studies showed that this anomaly was stretching across the whole continent, resembling in its form and shape the giant cracks in the east of Africa.
It’s been reported that the tectonic plate beneath the southeastern regions of the United States is being fragmented by the layers of earth above it, which may be the cause of future earthquakes in the Washington area and other cities on the east coast, where basically no preconditions for the emergence of aftershocks, according to Live Science.
According to Berk Biryol from the University of North Carolina, in recent years the Washington area and the areas around other large cities in the east of the country faced a pretty intense seismic activity, which at first puzzled seismologists since the east of the country is residing on a stable continental crust that must prevent any earthquake from occurring.
In recent years, the relationship between fracturing and the mounting number of earthquakes has been brought to light by the US Geological Survey (USGS), that would note that the number of earthquakes in the US has increased drastically over the last six years. In fact, it expects an abrupt increase in the number of seismic events in some regions of the country where fracturing is being used including Oklahoma, California, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, Ohio, Alabama and New Mexico.
But the split in the United States is not being predicted by the USGS alone, since the recent seismic political events aggravated the growing discord within the US society in the wake of the US presidential campaign.
Western journalists are sounding the alarm – America’s youth is now fascinated with the concepts of socialism and communism. According to the poll conducted by the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation (VOC), a half of all Americans under 35 years would love to be represented by a socialist president. Politicians who profess capitalist views do only receive the support of 42% of the younger American generation. This explains the spectacular rise of DNC’s Bernie Sanders which would most certainly become the next president, if Hillary didn’t use her wealth and connections to replace him as the sole Democratic candidate.
The German newspaper Tagesspiegel points out that this election campaign “undermines the belief that most Americans share the idea about living in a democratic and constitutional state.” The newspaper notes that there’s been a lot of speculations about the possible armed resistance to the “US corrupt government system” lately, no matter how unlikely the future post-election violence may look now.
The latest poll conducted by USA Today and Suffolk University shows that only 40% of potential voters strongly believe in the peaceful transfer of power after the US presidential elections. With six in ten viewing the candidates unfavorably, Clinton and Trump are the two most unpopular presidential candidates in ABC/Post polls dating to the 1984 election. This ABC News/Washington Post poll was conducted by landline and cellular telephone in English and Spanish, among a random national sample of 1,165 likely voters.
The level of antipathy towards the two main presidential candidates in terms of party affiliation has also been at staggering level, with 97% of Trump supporters despising Hillary Clinton and 95% of Hillary’s loathing the Republican presidential candidate.
It’s no wonder that there’s been a rapidly increasing number of petitions on the separation of various states, which refer to the Declaration of Independence, where the Founding Fathers explicitly stated that “any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it” To date, the petitions on the separation from the US have been filled by a total of 40 states. Texas that is viewed as the last bastion of conservatism has already gathered more than 100 thousand signatures under its petition for obtaining the status of an independent state. Behind it are Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee.
Therefore, aside from the major geological rift that may soon hit the US, there’s a deep social and political rift to be observed, which may, in case of loss of all confidence in the existing political system result in a major outbreak of violence.
Earth has already witnessed the existence of two supercontinent – Rodinia and Pangaea. First, the former continent formed about 800 million years ago, until the latter one appeared some 600 million years later. Scientists expect that in the future a new supercontinent will be formed that has it own name already – Amasia. This continent will be formed out of the modern North America and Asia, notes the Nature.
Who knows, maybe before Amasia even emerges we will witness a new state or even two that would replace the US?
Grete Mautner is an indepenent researcher and journalist from Germany, exclusively for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook.”
The existence of life beyond Earth, popularly known as alien life, is a highly contentious issue among researchers. However, based on the available evidence, it appears those arguing that alien life exists or existed is winning the debate.
Since the mid-20th century, there has been a significant surge in the search for signs of alien intelligence by researchers. Radios have been deployed to detect possible extraterrestrial signals; telescopes have also been mounted to search for potentially habitable extra solar planets.
The British Theoretical Physicist, Professor Stephen Hawking explained some time ago that alien life exists. According to Hawking, in a universe with 100 billion galaxies, with each containing hundreds of millions of stars, it is unlikely that Earth is the only place where life has evolved. He said his brain has rationalized that there is life somewhere apart from what exists on Earth.
The Sunday Times quoted Hawking as saying: “To my mathematical brain, the numbers alone make thinking about aliens perfectly rational. The real challenge is working out what aliens might actually be like.”
Moving away from Professor Hawking and what his mathematical brain is telling him about alien life, a new study published in the journal Nature has shed some light on the topic. Although the objective of the study was not to look for alien life, the analytical stage of the study chanced upon a possible life somewhere apart from Earth.
A team of researchers from University College London discovered ancient fossils in Canada’s Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, which hosts some of the oldest sedimentary rocks known on Earth. The tiny microfossils were found to be half the width of a human hair and up to half-a-millimeter in length. Their appearance is of blood-red tubes and filaments, formed by ocean-dwelling bacteria that fed on iron.
When the fossils were studied, the researchers found they are between 3.77 billion and 4.29 billion years old. This makes these fossils the oldest ever to be discovered. The oldest microfossils previously reported were found in Western Australia and dated to 3.46 billion years old.
Lead author of the study, Matthew Dodd was quoted by Reuters as saying that if the dating is accurate, it would represent an almost instantaneous emergence of life after ocean formation. He said the discovery represents a significant milestone, demonstrating life existed on Earth at its infancy.
The researchers said their discovery shows “direct evidence” that life existed on Earth 4 billion years ago. They also stated that the emergence of life could be simple enough to begin on other planets.
However, the researchers acknowledged skepticism about whether the discovered fossils are biological in nature, or merely natural mineral formations.
“One of the big questions when it comes to early life studies is whether or not the organic carbon we find in these rocks is actually biological in origin,” Dodd said.
To answer the big question, Dodd and his colleagues used several methods; including laser-imaging to analyze the minerals associated with the organic material. They concluded that the presence of two minerals in particular – apatite and carbonite – provide strong evidence for life.
Moreover, the researchers said they noted that the microfossils’ structure closely resembles modern bacteria that dwell near iron-rich hydrothermal vents. The researchers then theorized that there’s no reason to rule out similar evidence of early life being found on other planets.
“We could expect to find evidence for past life on Mars 4 billion years ago. If life happened so quickly on Earth, then could we expect it to be a simple process that could start on other planets?” Dodd asked, stating that Earth and Mars had liquid on their surfaces at the same time.
Of course, this is not the first time researchers are suspecting that life exists or might have existed on Mars. In November 2016, NASA said it was unable to rule out possible alien life somewhere in the universe. NASA reached this conclusion after it discovered methane gas on Mars in data brought to Earth by the Curiosity Rover, a car-sized robotic machine exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission.
According to NASA researchers, the methane gas may have been produced by bacteria on Mars. Most methane on Earth is produced as a waste gas by living organisms, but there are many non-biological processes that can also generate the gas.
The Earth’s crust is a 10-40km (6-25 miles) deep solid layer which sits on top of the viscous mantle and molten core. The current crust – on which all of our cities, countries, continents and oceans rest – isn’t the planet’s first.
Billions of years ago, when Earth was in its infancy, a more ancient crust covered the planet. That crust melted back into the planet’s interior long ago due to plate tectonics, or was transformed into new rocks.
The oldest portions of the current crust have been dated as 2.7 billion years old. Given that scientists believe the Earth is more than 4.5 billion years old, this leaves a huge gap between the birth of the planet and the formation of its cover.
However, a team of researchers from the University of Ottawa and the Carnegie Institution in Washington, DC who were working in northern Quebec have found evidence of an even older crust dating back at least 4.2 billion years.
“The Earth is always ‘recycling’ and re-melting its crust, erasing records of its early beginnings”, explains Jonathan O’Neil of the University of Ottawa.
“Finding remnants of this ancient crust has proven difficult, but a new approach offers the ability to detect the presence of truly ancient crust that has been reworked into ‘merely’ really old rocks,” O’Neill’s colleague Richard Carlson of Carnegie said in a statement on the findings.
There is much about Earth’s ancient crust that scientists don’t understand because most of the planet’s original crust simply isn’t around any longer to be examined.
O’Neill and Carlson studied 2.7 billion-year-old rocks which make up a good portion of the eastern shore of Hudson Bay. To date the rock, the researchers measured an isotope called neodymium-142 which was produced only within the Earth’s first 500 million years.
The findings, published in the journal Science, provide vital information to understand how the first continents were built. The study also suggests that the ancient crust survived for nearly 1.5 billion years before being recycled.
The paper doesn’t provide conclusive answers for how the crust formed, but the researchers says it does provide new insight. “It gives us more tools to understand the early geodynamics,” O’Neil said. “Was [the process] the same everywhere on Earth? Or was it local? These are all questions we’ll have to answer.”
Something enormous, epoch making, is happening in Antarctica.
March 8th, 2017
Something enormous, epoch making, is happening in Antarctica.
Although the recent visits by heads of state and other high profile figures to Antarctica remain shrouded in mystery, but there are repeated suggestions that things are changing rapidly there – perhaps the pole shift is happening at a drastic rate – and something buried or hidden may have been discovered.
It is well known in conspiracy circles that the Nazi’s established a secret base in Neuschwabenland, Antarctica during WW2, and it apparently involved the UFO-type aircraft being secretly developed, though no one with any position authority has ever dared to confirm these developments in a major public way.
The U.S. launched a massive military operation after the war in Antarctica, led by Admiral Richard E. Byrd – and they were met with superior military force that ultimately repelled the American expedition. Massive secrets were suggested by the operational secrecy, the buried accounts and the unfinished business at the South Pole. The Russians, too, were involved in territorial disputes and expeditions, before international treaties brought quiet to the South Pole front.
With the recent melt, and cracking of the ice, which is expected to lead to the release of an iceberg the size of Delaware, there is reason to speculate about what we might find in the least explored and least understood land mass on the globe.
How far does that hidden history go?
Does it involve science fiction stories turned fact? Is there advanced technology, or evidence of ancient alien life present and unfrozen from the ice?
Because poles have historically shifted, Antarctica has not always been buried under a permanently-frozen wasteland, but if there was human civilization or alien contact at any point on the quiet continent, it was not during the current period of recorded human history… unless there is more to the underground world there than mankind has heretofore accepted.
Already, heated debate over the meaning of an apparent pyramid uncovered in Antarctica is raising some fascinating queries.
What is downright strange about the whole intrigue and mystery surrounding Antarctica, is that clairvoyant Edgar Cayce seems to have predicted these massive changes in the earth:
“The earth will be broken up in many places. The early portion will see a change in the physical aspect of the west coast of America. There will appear open waters in the northern portions of Greenland.”
“There will be seen new lands of the Caribbean Sea. South America will be shaken from the uppermost portion to the end; and in the Antarctic off Tierra del Fuego will be land, and a strait with rushing waters.”
“When there is first the breaking up of some conditions in the South Sea and those as apparent as the sinking or rising of that which is almost opposite it, or in the Mediterranean, and the Aetna area, then we may know it has begun.”
The planet is changing, and it could destroy life as we know it, or uncover truly unique aspects of the past.
Either way, your global warming and human climate change activity have nothing to do with it – these are planetary, geomagnetic events, impacted by changing conditions in the earth’s core, the intensity of cosmic radiation and solar events, and similar factors that either sustain life on the planet, or upend it.
One thing is clear, we know next to nothing about what is really happening on – and to – this piece of earth we call home.