A new neuroimaging study finds the placebo effect can help to lessen the impact of the emotional pain from romantic rejection.
“Just the fact that you are doing something for yourself and engaging in something that gives you hope may have an impact,” said Wager. “In some cases, the actual chemical in the drug may matter less than we once thought.”
Summary: A new neuroimaging study finds the placebo effect can help to lessen the impact of the emotional pain from romantic rejection.Source: University of Colorado at Boulder.Feeling heartbroken from a recent breakup? Just believing you’re doing something to help yourself get over your ex can influence brain regions associated with emotional regulation and lessen the perception of pain.
That’s the takeaway from a new University of Colorado Boulder study that measured the neurological and behavioral impacts the placebo effect had on a group of recently broken-hearted volunteers.
“Breaking up with a partner is one of the most emotionally negative experiences a person can have, and it can be an important trigger for developing psychological problems,” said first author and postdoctoral research associate Leonie Koban, noting that such social pain is associated with a 20-fold higher risk of developing depression in the coming year. “In our study, we found a placebo can have quite strong effects on reducing the intensity of social pain.”
For decades, research has shown that placebos – sham treatments with no active ingredients – can measurably ease pain, Parkinson’s disease and other physical ailments.
The new study, published in March in the Journal of Neuroscience, is the first to measure placebos’ impact on emotional pain from romantic rejection.
Researchers recruited 40 volunteers who had experienced an “unwanted romantic breakup” in the past six months. They were asked to bring a photo of their ex and a photo of a same-gendered good friend to a brain-imaging lab.
Inside a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine, the participants were shown images of their former partner and asked to recall the breakup. Then they were shown images of their friend. They were also subjected to physical pain (a hot stimulus on their left forearm).
As these stimuli were alternately repeated, the subjects rated how they felt on a scale of 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). Meanwhile, the fMRI machine tracked their brain activity.
While not identical, the regions that lit up during physical and emotional pain were similar.
This finding alone sends an important message to the heartbroken, said senior author Tor Wager, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at CU Boulder: “Know that your pain is real – neuro-chemically real.”
The subjects were then taken out of the machine and given a nasal spray. Half were told it was a “powerful analgesic effective in reducing emotional pain.” Half were told it was a simple saline solution.
Back inside the machine, the subjects were again shown images of their ex and subjected to pain. The placebo group not only felt less physical pain and felt better emotionally, but their brain responded differently when shown the ex.
Activity in the brain’s dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – an area involved with modulating emotions – increased sharply. Across the brain, areas associated with rejection quieted. Notably, after the placebo, when participants felt the best they also showed increased activity in an area of the midbrain called the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The PAG plays a key role in modulating levels of painkilling brain chemicals, or opioids, and feel-good neurotransmitters like dopamine.
While the study did not look specifically at whether the placebo prompted the release of such chemicals, the authors suspect this could be what’s happening.
“The current view is that you have positive expectations and they influence activity in your prefrontal cortex, which in turn influences systems in your midbrain to generate neurochemical opioid or dopamine responses,” said Wager.
Previous studies have shown that the placebo effect alone not only eases depression, but may actually make antidepressants work better.
While the study did not look specifically at whether the placebo prompted the release of such chemicals, the authors suspect this could be what’s happening. NeuroscienceNews.com image is for illustrative purposes only.
“Just the fact that you are doing something for yourself and engaging in something that gives you hope may have an impact,” said Wager. “In some cases, the actual chemical in the drug may matter less than we once thought.”
The authors said the latest study not only helps them better understand how emotional pain plays out in the brain, but can also hint at ways people can use the power of expectation to their advantage.
Said Koban: “What is becoming more and more clear is that expectations and predictions have a very strong influence on basic experiences, on how we feel and what we perceive.”
Bottom line, if you’ve been dumped recently: “Doing anything that you believe will help you feel better will probably help you feel better,” she said.
Psychedelics Create A Kind of Consciousness We Have Never Seen Before
More researchers are accepting the power of psychedelics with unprecedented potential to treat disease and psychological trauma, but most of all, to reorganize the brain and shift thought patterns. Measuring neuron activity has revealed that psychedelic drugs really do alter the state of the brain, creating a different kind of consciousness.
Many researchers have been interested in the idea that psychedelics facilitate communication across the brain and, more specifically, how the default-mode network in the brain, arguably science’s best biological correlate of the self, normally works to constrain this.
“Psychedelics” are substances with the ability to expand human awareness beyond our normal modes of perception. Some may be the most amazing substances known to humanity, so potent that just 1/10,000th of a gram can send one on a journey beyond time and space, beyond life and death.
“We see an increase in the diversity of signals from the brain,” says Anil Seth, at the University of Sussex, UK. “The brain is more complex in its activity.”
In mathematical terms, normal brains have a well-ordered correlation state. There’s not much cross-linking between networks. That changes after the psilocybin dose. Suddenly the networks are cross-linking like crazy, but not in random ways. New types of order emerge.
“We can speculate on the implications of such an organization,” wrote researchers, who were led by neurobiologist Paul Expert of King’s College London. “One possible by-product of this greater communication across the whole brain is the phenomenon of synaesthesia” common during psychedelic experiences, of sensory mix-up: tasting colors, feeling sounds, seeing smells, and so on.
While the psychedelic state has been previously compared with dreaming, the opposite effect has been observed in the brain network from which we get our sense of “self” (called the default-mode network or ego-system). Put simply, while activity became “louder” in the emotion system, it became more disjointed and so “quieter” in the ego system.The first study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2012, revealed decreases in brain activity after injection of psilocybin that were localized to the default-mode network.
Seth and his team discovered this by re-analysing data previously collected by researchers at Imperial College London. Robin Carhart-Harris and his colleagues had monitored brain activity in 19 volunteers who had taken ketamine, 15 who had had LSD, and 14 who were under the influence of psilocybin, a hallucinogenic compound in magic mushrooms. Carhart-Harris’s team used sets of sensors attached to the skull to measure the magnetic fields produced by these volunteer’s neurons, and compared these to when each person took a placebo.
“We took the activity data, cleaned it up then chopped it into 2-second chunks,” says Seth, whose team worked with Carhart-Harris on the re-analysis. “For each chunk, we could calculate a measure of diversity.”
Higher State Previous work had shown that people in a state of wakefulness have more diverse patterns of brain activity than people who are asleep. Seth’s team has found that people who have taken psychedelic drugs show even more diversity — the highest level ever measured.
These patterns of very high diversity coincided with the volunteers reporting “ego-dissolution” — a feeling that the boundaries between oneself and the world have been blurred. The degree of diversity was also linked to more vivid experiences.
There’s mounting evidence that psychedelic drugs may help people with depression in ways that other treatments can’t. Some benefits have already been seen with LSD, ketamine, psilocybin, and ayahuasca, a potion used in South America during religious rites.
“I think there’s an awful lot of potential here,” says Seth. “If you suddenly see things in a different way, it could give your outlook a jolt that existing antidepressants can’t because they work on the routine, wakeful state.”
A new study in the journal Neuropharmacology is showing yet again the incredibly diverse ways that medical cannabis can heal the body. We already know of several physical conditions it can treat—such as epileptic seizures, Crohn’s disease and neuropathic pain—but medical cannabis is also showing promise for the treatment of depression.
Researchers at the Universidad de Cantabria focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, finding that that CBD has fast-acting antidepressant effects that can be sustained with continued doses.
“Our results demonstrate that CBD exerts fast and maintained antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by the reversal of the OBX-induced hyperactivity and anhedonia…
In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signaling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.”
The scientists used an established method of research on mice that has proven to be an accurate model for human depression, allowing study of the biological causes and potential treatments. They discovered that CBD acted to reverse depression symptoms by causing an increased release of serotonin and glutamate.
“Mice with the OBX surgery showed significantly reduced symptoms of hyperactivity 30 minutes after CBD was administered, in comparison to mice that were given a placebo. Continued daily administration of CBD was found to completely reverse the effects of OBX surgery on the mice’s loss of interest in sugar after one week. Examination of chemical activity within the mice’s brains indicated that CBD caused increased release of serotonin and glutamate.
Glutamate release was affected dramatically in all mice who received CBD, both immediately after the first dose and after weeks of repeated administration. The impact on serotonin was more subtle after the first dose, and it persisted over time only in mice who had OBX surgery, suggesting that this change may have occurred only in response to the depression-like conditions in the mice’s brains. — PsyPost.org”
In January we reported that people who have discovered the therapeutic uses of cannabis are giving up prescription drugs. Big Pharma is very concerned that their manufactured products could be replaced by a miraculous plant.
As we reported last month, chemical antidepressants may be causing an increase in suicides, and government-backed pill pushers are trying to hide these destructive effects. This new study brings more bad news for Big Pharma, as CBD could prove to be more effective than their notorious products.
New research shows it messes with their migration, with potentially devastating effects.
Anxiety takes a toll on people: they worry, they feel irritable, they avoid social gatherings — like an upcoming New Year’s Eve party. Juvenile salmon also experience stress when faced with unfamiliar situations, such as migrating out to sea where they’ll encounter predators. While anti-anxiety medication helps countless humans function better in their daily lives, new research shows the drugs also make salmon less inhibited, which can have potentially devastating effects.
In a study out of Sweden’s Umeå University, researchers show oxazepam — a pharmaceutical prescribed to humans for the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia — affects the downstream migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon.
Exposing fish to anti-anxiety medication isn’t something that only happens in scientific studies: when humans excrete drugs, some can end up in wastewater effluent and subsequently in sensitive habitats where salmon may get an unintended dose. The researchers found that when fish ingest oxazepam, it makes them migrate faster and farther — potentially recklessly so.
Leaving the freshwater nursery and heading out to sea is part of the salmon lifecycle, but landing in the big blue too soon can be risky. Fish may find ocean conditions unfavourable — too cold, too dangerous, or lacking food, for example.
“Many scientists, including Dr. Turhan Canli of Stony Brook University in New York, have come to believe that depression might have more to do with gut microbes, viruses, or bacteria than brain chemistry. In fact, Cali believes depression should be reclassified as an infectious disease.”
A new study of healthy people taking antidepressants shows that the drugs often significantly increase suicidal feelings in users.
Antidepressants are supposed to ease symptoms of depression, but yet another study shows the drugs may actually increase suicidal feelings in users. According to Danish researchers, the new study wrecks “potentially lethal misconceptions” about the safety of antidepressants. 
Statistics About Antidepressants
Researchers estimate that 8% to 10% of Americans take an antidepressant. Adults in the U.S. consumed 4 times more of the drugs in the late 2000’s than they did in the early 1990’s. 
Are more people depressed now than they were 20 years ago? Probably, yes. But that doesn’t necessarily account for the rise in antidepressant use.
You see, nearly 70% of people taking an antidepressant do not meet the criteria for clinical depression. That doesn’t mean they don’t feel sad, or they’re not going through hard times. It simply means that, from a purely diagnostic standpoint, they are not clinically depressed.
Not only that, but between 25% and 60% of antidepressants are prescribed for off-label purposes, including ADHD, autism, fibromyalgia, bipolar disorder, and even neuropathic pain.
Findings of the Study
Danish researchers analyzed 13 trial studies, and conducted a study of their own involving 374 trial volunteers – all of them healthy – to see how antidepressants affected people who did not have depression. 
The researchers said they picked the patients that they did because earlier studies suggesting a link between suicide and antidepressants had been dismissed by those who blamed the deaths on the person’s supposed mental health condition and not the drugs.
Professor Peter Gøtzsche, of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, said:
“The drug industry always tries to blame the disease for these harms, never the pills. This is why our study is important. Healthy volunteers don’t have a disease — so we cannot blame the side effects of the pills on it.” 
When the participants were given antidepressant pills, levels of side effects nearly doubled, including suicidal feelings.
“Suicidal feelings” included anxiety, nightmares, and agitation.
Gotzsche said these feelings could be considered as “precursors to suicidality or violence.” 
However, Professor Guy Goodwin, past President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology and Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Oxford, called the conclusions “absurd.” He said:
“This manuscript claims to show that antidepressants double the risk of suicide and violence, but it does not. The methodology is fatally flawed and leads to conclusions that are highly misleading.
If ‘nervousness, anxiety, tremor, bad dreams and agitation events’ are risk factors for suicide or violence, then probably the majority of people in the UK would be at risk of suicide or violence, which obviously isn’t so.”
Phil Cowen, Professor of Psychopharmacology at Oxford University, agreed, saying:
“These side-effects are clinically significant, frequently distressing and an important topic for discussion between patient and clinician.
However, the notion that they are necessarily indicative of violence and suicide seems to me rather like arguing that transient annoyance with a colleague is much the same thing as attempted murder.” 
Drug Companies Seriously “Under-Report Harms of Antidepressants”
But Gøtzsche said that his findings are even more disturbing, considering drug companies seriously “under-report the harms of antidepressants related to suicide and violence, either by simply omitting them from reports, by calling them something else, or by committing scientific misconduct.” 
Gøtzsche is right about that.
It came out in 2005 that a Harvard psychiatrist and the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly covered up a secret 1988 internal memo indicating that Lilly’s own controlled clinical trials of antidepressant drug Prozac had a significantly higher rate of suicide attempts, hostility, violence, and psychosis than 4 other commonly used antidepressants in the 1980’s and 1990’s.
Earlier this year, another study conducted by Gøtzsche and his colleagues found that SSRI antidepressants – the most common class of antidepressants – doubled the risk of suicide and aggressive behavior in teens under 18.
That study, a review of 70 clinical trials of SSRI antidepressants, which involved more than 18,000 people, also found that 1 drug company misreported 4 deaths in favor of its product. The company also chalked up over 50% of suicidal incidents to “emotional lability” or “worsening of depression.”
No mention that either problem could have been the result of taking the drug itself.
And let’s face it – there’s a reason why antidepressants list “suicidal thoughts” as a potential side effect on their labels.
Serotonin and Depression: Lacking a Link
You’ve probably heard that depression is a result of a lack of brain chemicals, or an imbalance of them.
Researchers are still trying to figure out what causes depression, exactly, still arguing over whether a lack of the chemical serotonin is or isn’t actually the cause of depression.
And what do SSRI antidepressants do? They increase serotonin in the brain. SSRI stands for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Well, there’s more to it than that. Maybe I’ll just let the Mayo Clinic explain:
“SSRIs ease depression by increasing levels of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is one of the chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that carry signals between brain cells. SSRIs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin in the brain, making more serotonin available. SSRIs are called selective because they seem to primarily affect serotonin, not other neurotransmitters.”
For years, doctors and patients alike have believed that depression is caused by a lack of serotonin, not because anyone told them so, but because they just assumed that because SSRIs improve the symptoms of depression, depression must be caused by not enough serotonin.
Antidepressants might make you feel better, but because they interfere with the delicate chemistry of the brain, they might also be causing you irreparable brain damage.
It’s like saying that eating pancakes might help you deal with the stress of an upcoming business meeting, but they’re still making you overweight and spiking your blood sugar.
Many scientists, including Dr. Turhan Canli of Stony Brook University in New York, have come to believe that depression might have more to do with gut microbes, viruses, or bacteria than brain chemistry. In fact, Cali believes depression should be reclassified as an infectious disease.
Only more research can prove or disprove this theory, which doesn’t offer the quick fix that so many people find in antidepressants. But this theory makes sense, because 80% to 90% of the serotonin in the body is located in the gastrointestinal tract.
But wouldn’t it be worthwhile to find and treat the cause, rather than just treat the symptoms?
No one should guilt you into or out of taking any medication. (And if you’re taking antidepressants, this is NOT my way of telling you to stop taking them! I know people who seem to experience much more benefit than risk.)
However, if you’re going through a divorce, you’ve just lost your job, or you’re grieving a loved one, counseling, yoga, and other methods for dealing with your pain may be a safer option for you.
There’s no doubt an increasing amount of anxiety and depression in our modern world. This is partly because the standard combination of pharmaceutical drugs and mainstream psychology struggles to work. Fortunately, there are other ways though.
Before I get into how, let’s discuss why the drugs and psychs aren’t doing what they say they will. To use a pharmacological example, the anti-depressant drugs that the corporate-based, medical-industrial complex prescribes for society are designed to increase the levels of serotonin in the body. Yet as discussed in this Huffington Post article, that entire theory might be invalid:
Andrews surveyed 50 years’ worth of research supporting the serotonin theory of depression, which suggests that the disease is caused by low levels of the “happiness” neurotransmitter, serotonin.
But Andrews argues that depression may actually be caused by elevated levels of serotonin. And this fundamental misunderstanding may be responsible for inappropriate treatment.
Even if increasing serotonin was the right approach, it’s only a temporary support mechanism whilst psycho-social and physiological measures are put into place to actually resolve the problem permanently. In other words, these drugs don’t cure anything. What will cure it is holistically addressing the issues in our neurological, digestive, environmental and philosophical realms. This in turn can emancipate us from our depression, anxiety and an array of other mental and emotional ills.
Micro-organisms in our gut secrete a profound number of chemicals, and researchers like Lyte have found that among those chemicals are the same substances used by our neurons to communicate and regulate mood, like dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These, in turn, appear to play a function in intestinal disorders, which coincide with high levels of major depression and anxiety.
Depression is often found alongside gastrointestinal inflammations and autoimmune diseases as well as with cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, type 2-diabetes and also cancer, in which chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant contributing factor. Thus researchers suggested “depression may be a neuropsychiatric manifestation of a chronic inflammatory syndrome.”
The addictive and health-deteriorating substance called sugar has also been linked to depressive psychological states. It’s no wonder either when it has been scientifically shown to light up the same regions of the brain as cocaine and heroin. As expressed in the same article:
It’s become increasingly clear that one route by which sugar is so detrimental to your mental health is because sugar consumption triggers a cascade of chemical reactions in your body that promote chronic inflammation. Further, excess sugar and fructose will distort the ratio of good to bad bacteria in your gut, which also plays an integral role in your mental health. Sugar does this by serving as a fertilizer/fuel for pathogenic bacteria, yeast and fungi that negatively inhibit the beneficial bacteria in your gut.
On a positive side-note, this article indicates how to make our digestive system healthier:
A new study from England found that supplements that boost “good” bacteria in the gut (called “prebiotics”) may alter the way people process emotional information, suggesting that changes in gut bacteria may have anti-anxiety effects.
In terms of our environmental stimuli, our external circumstances are highly influential when it comes to our sense of well-being and the way we behave. When discussed in the context of addiction, the old idea that ‘drugs cause addiction’ dissolves and the new approach becomes ‘challenging environments amplify addictive behavior’. One such study with rats reinforces this idea here:
The experiment is simple. Put a rat in a cage, alone, with two water bottles. One is just water. The other is water laced with heroin or cocaine. Almost every time you run this experiment, the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water, and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself.
But in the 1970s, a professor of Psychology in Vancouver called Bruce Alexander noticed something odd about this experiment. The rat is put in the cage all alone. It has nothing to do but take the drugs. What would happen, he wondered, if we tried this differently? So Professor Alexander built Rat Park. It is a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls and the best rat-food and tunnels to scamper down and plenty of friends: everything a rat about town could want. What, Alexander wanted to know, will happen then?
In Rat Park, all the rats obviously tried both water bottles, because they didn’t know what was in them. But what happened next was startling.
The rats with good lives didn’t like the drugged water. They mostly shunned it, consuming less than a quarter of the drugs the isolated rats used. None of them died. While all the rats who were alone and unhappy became heavy users, none of the rats who had a happy environment did.
There is no doubt that an unhealthy environment – including poor parental, interpersonal, financial and societal circumstances – all contribute to our state of being, but why can some people exposed to poverty and other harsh realities still manage to be relatively happy?
Moreover, why aren’t all people with unhealthy guts experiencing depression and/or anxiety? What are the other reasons why so many people are subjected to these ongoing states of suffering?
It’s not just the outside of us which comprises our environment, our inner realm is just as much as part of it too. This includes our physical design, such as our neurology, and our mental design, such as our beliefs and philosophies.
That’s why if we truly want to overcome our states of suffering, we need to go back to the way we’re wired neurologically and the way we’re constructed conceptually. The wiring in our body-brain is an interconnected network that not just moves through our cerebral, digestive and heart brains, but also throughout our body in terms of cellular, molecular and atomic information-sharing and processing. These pathways and reference points are the physiological basis of our past – our memory – which in effect influences our present and future.
In other words, our traumas and other dysfunctions are hardwired through this network, leading to the continuation of past habits, including depressive and anxious responses to our world. So if we want to change a habit of say, poor resilience, we need to change ourselves on a physical level to ensure sustained behavioral change.
So then, how exactly do we do that? Enter philosophy and action. The way we conceptualize reality, including our lives in detail, as well as the choices we make which determine our behavior, directly impacts the neurological pathways and connections in our body, especially over time.
I can’t emphasize how important this point is. Just like our physical layer influences our mental experience, the way we construct our internal world of ideas, concepts and beliefs inevitably has an impact on our body-brain. If we consistently and repeatedly force a new way of thinking and feeling onto our bodily system, it will respond and adapt accordingly without fail.
A good analogy I like to use when describing this is when you create a new path through the forest. The old walkway is obvious and therefore easy to navigate through, but a new one isn’t. Over considerable time walking the new path it will inescapably become as easy to navigate as the original one.
Therefore, when we change our internal dialogue, our neurology and other physiology changes with it.
That’s why it’s seriously important to consciously design our philosophies and actions i.e. what we believe, how we think, the decisions we make, which ways we behave etc. We should always be asking ourselves: is our internal design beneficial to our mental and emotional health? Does it translate into productive, functional and beneficial behaviors? Is our conscious and subconscious awareness healthy for our physical apparatus, or does it impact negatively on our body-brain?
If you’re personally stuck in a rut with anxiety, depression or other forms of mental and physical health issues, taking a holistic approach to resolving them is the only way. Just changing what we eat, or just thinking more positively, isn’t going to cut it; it needs to a full spectrum response over a significant course of time if we really want to redesign our mind/body connection in a more productive and desirable way.
To do so, we must face ourselves on every level. This includes our interpersonal, physical, emotional, philosophical, psychological, behavioral, sexual and spiritual health, as well as how they all interrelate and dance with each other.
And we also need to respect the emotional roller-coaster we call life and navigate our way through the happiness and sadness with as much peace and contentment as we can can.
Ultimately, keep your chin up; we’ve all had not-so wise influences throughout our upbringing and within society in general, so we all need to go through various phases of unlearning and relearning. It might take a while to implement hard-wired, habitual and sustained changes that are valuable for our overall health, but with enough commitment, courage and creativity, it’s achievable for all of us.
About the Author
Phillip J. Watt lives in Australia. His written work deals with topics from ideology to society, as well as self-development. Follow him on Facebook or visit his website.
A large group of medical doctors, psychiatrists and researchers are demanding that the American Psychiatric Association retract a shady study that relied upon industry influence to determine the effectiveness of an antidepressant that’s widely prescribed among children and teens.
The study, published more than a decade ago in the American Journal of Psychiatry, touted the benefits of Celexa in younger populations suffering from depression.
However, a recent analysis of the research found “gross misrepresentations” about the safety and effectiveness of the drug, including the fact that Celexa worked no better than the placebo.
Study showing benefits of Celexa in children was written by the drug’s maker
The researchers say that the study reflected the “pervasive influence” of the marketing objectives of Forest Laboratories, the Celexa manufacturer, adding that the “scientific” manuscript was “written primarily for marketing purposes and only secondarily as a peer-reviewed journal.”
In other words, the study was totally fabricated to extend the consumer base for Celexa to children and teens, the fastest growing demographic for which antidepressants are prescribed.
The analysis revealed that the study was written by none other than ghost writers employed by Forest Laboratories who “seriously misrepresented” the data about the drug’s safety and efficacy.
“Forest’s own internal documents disclosed in litigation show that company staff were aware that there were serious problems with the conduct of this trial but concealed the problems in advancing their commercial objectives,” said the researchers.
As reported by Stat News, “Procedural deviations in the study were not reported; negative outcomes were not reported; [and] side effects were misleadingly analyzed.”
Fabricated study continues to be cited by the pharmaceutical industry
The researchers’ letter demanding a retraction is dated August 1, 2016, and addressed to Dr. Maria Oquendo, president of the American Psychiatric Association. It asks Oquendo to urge the current editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry to issue a retraction.
“Our main concern is that children and adolescents are continuing to be at risk of harm unnecessarily because well-intentioned physicians have been misled,” they wrote.
“We believe that the unretracted … article represents a stain on the high standard of the American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP) and the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Neither the AJP nor the APA can claim to be a leader in scientific research.”
New research finds antidepressants totally ineffective and dangerous for children
The revelations come roughly two months after a groundbreaking report revealed that most antidepressants marketed for children and teens are not only ineffective, but downright dangerous.
The research, published in The Lancet, reports that out of 14 antidepressants, only one (Prozac) provided depression relief for children and teens. Other antidepressants such as Effexor increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in younger populations.
The study is the most comprehensive analysis ever conducted regarding antidepressant use among children and teens.
Supermodel says antidepressants made her a ‘sociopath’
The adverse effects of antidepressants continue to be disclosed by both physicians and patients alike. English fashion model Cara Delevingne recently told Britain’s Esquire magazine that antidepressants turned her into a “sociopath.”
Delevingne, who took the drugs for two years as a teenager, said she lost all feelings, and was “just numb” until she stopped taking them.
“I didn’t feel s**t. It was horrible. I was like a sociopath. When something was funny I would go, ‘Ha ha!’ just because other people laughed, but then I’d stop immediately because I wasn’t really very good at faking it.”