These damned idiots are salivating at the thought of war.
According to all-cause mortality statistics adjusted for population growth, the number of Americans who have died between January 2021 and August 2021 is 14% higher than 2018, the pre-COVID year with the highest all-cause mortality, and 16% higher than the average death rate between 2015 and 2019
Did COVID-19 raise the death toll despite mass vaccination, or are people dying at increased rates because of it?
The COVID jab killed an estimated 1,018 people per million doses administered during the first 30 days of the European vaccination campaign
When counting only deaths categorized as COVID-19 deaths, the death toll from the jabs is estimated to be between 200 and 500 deaths per million doses administered. With 4 billion doses having been administered around the world, that means 800,000 to 2 million so-called “COVID-19 deaths” may in fact be vaccine-induced deaths
Data from 23 countries reveal the number of new COVID cases (i.e., positive tests) after the start of the COVID jab campaign is 3.8 times higher than it was before the rollout of the shots, and the daily COVID death rate is 3.82 times higher
According to all-cause mortality statistics,1 the number of Americans who have died between January 2021 and August 2021 is 16% higher than 2018, the pre-COVID year with the highest all-cause mortality, and 18% higher than the average death rate between 2015 and 2019. Adjusted for population growth of about 0.6% annually, the mortality rate in 2021 is 16% above the average and 14% above the 2018 rate.
The obvious question is, why did more people die in 2021 (January through August) despite the rollout of COVID shots in December 2020? Did COVID-19 raise the death toll despite mass vaccination, or are people dying at increased rates because of the COVID jabs?
In a two-part series,2 Matthew Crawford of the Rounding the Earth Newsletter, examined mortality statistics before and after the rollout of the COVID shots. In Part 1,3 he revealed the shots killed an estimated 1,018 people per million doses administered (note, this is doses, not the number of individuals vaccinated) during the first 30 days of the European vaccination campaign.Between 800,000 and 2 million so-called ‘COVID-19 deaths’ may in fact be vaccine-induced deaths.
After adjusting for deaths categorized as COVID-19 deaths, he came up with an estimate of 200 to 500 deaths per million doses administered. With 4 billion doses having been administered around the world, that means 800,000 to 2 million so-called “COVID-19 deaths” may in fact be vaccine-induced deaths. As explained by Crawford:4
“This does not even include vaccine-induced deaths that have not been recorded as COVID cases, though I suspect that latter number is smaller since the only good way to hide the vaccine mortality signal is to smuggle deaths through the already-established COVID death toll.”
Corroborating Crawford’s calculations are data from Norway, where 23 deaths were reported following the COVID jab at a time when only 40,000 Norwegians had received the shot.
Not taking into account the possibility of underreporting in Norway, that gives us a mortality rate of 575 deaths per million doses administered. What’s more, after conducting autopsies on 13 of those deaths, all 13 were determined to be linked to the COVID jab. As reported by Norway Today back in January 2021:5
“‘The reports might indicate that common side effects from mRNA vaccines, such as fever and nausea, may have led to deaths in some frail patients,’ chief physician Sigurd Hortemo in the Norwegian Medicines Agency noted.
The Norwegian Medicines Agency and the National Institute of Public Health (FHI) jointly assess all side effects reports. As a result, the FHI has updated the corona vaccination guide with new advice on the vaccination of frail elderly people.
‘If you are very frail, you should probably not be vaccinated,’ Steinar Madsen at the Norwegian Medicines Agency said at a webinar on corona vaccine for journalists …”
Is the COVID Jab Responsible for Excess Deaths?
Crawford goes on to look at data from countries that have substantial vaccine uptake while simultaneously having very low rates of COVID-19. This way, you can get a better idea as to whether the COVID jabs might be responsible for the excess deaths, as opposed to the infection itself.
He identified 23 countries that fit this criteria, accounting for 1.88 billion individuals, roughly one-quarter of the global population. Before the COVID jabs rolled out, these nations reported a total of 103.2 COVID-related deaths per million residents. Five nations had more than 200 COVID deaths per million while seven had fewer than 10 deaths per million.
As of August 1, 2021, 25.35% of inhabitants in these 23 nations had received a COVID jab and 10.36% were considered fully vaccinated. In all, 673 million doses had been administered. Based on these data, Crawford estimates the excess death rate per million vaccine doses is 411, well within the window of the 200 to 500 range he calculated in Part 1.
Equally intriguing is the finding that the number of new COVID cases (i.e., positive tests) after the start of the COVID jab campaign is 3.8 times higher than it was before the rollout of the shots, and the daily COVID death rate is 3.82 times higher.
Morocco and Saudi Arabia were the only two nations in which the case rate and COVID death rates went down after the vaccination campaign started. “If deaths were scaled by 3.82 due to the vaccines, then there were 276,465 excess deaths during this time span,” Crawford writes.
He goes through a number of adjustments to remove outliers that might skew the data sets, so for a more detailed review, see the original article. But in summary, after removing nations with more than 100 COVID deaths per million before their vaccination program (to evaluate the impact of the shots alone), he came up with 13 countries with a combined population of 354 million.
The number of doses administered in these 13 countries is similar to the original cohort. The adjusted number of excess deaths per million is now 318, which is still within the 200 to 500 per million range.
Remarkably, though, the number of COVID deaths in these 13 countries is 11.61 times higher post-vaccination, compared to before the jabs were rolled out. In five of the 13 countries, a whopping 90% of their COVID-19 fatalities have been logged after their vaccination campaigns began! This obliterates any fantasy that the COVID injections are actually helping.
“On face, these results reinforce the case that the experimental vaccines are killing people,”Crawford writes. “At the very least, this is one more dramatic [lack of] safety signal that should spur authorities who care about our health to come to the table for a discussion about how to refine the data they’re not analyzing to anyone’s knowledge …
More concerning is that numerous of these nations — largely located in Asia — seemed to have no susceptibility at all to the pandemic prior to vaccination. There are a lot of theories as to why this might be aside from just vaccines triggering deaths.
- Might PCR testing pick up signals from attenuated virus vaccines, resulting in case explosions (from almost none) to match the [new] deaths?
- Could some of these vaccines have faulty production … during polio vaccine rollout? This could result in cases and deaths?
- Paraguay has by far the greatest signal of vaccine-induced mortality. It stands out as one of the only nations on Earth to use both Chinese and also Western vaccines. Is there any reason such a combination could result in more volatile disease spread?
- Do we really believe that the braintrust at the FDA and CDC are entirely unaware of these observations?
Meanwhile, health authorities still seem to have no issue with the lack of risk report or risk-benefit analysis performed by any of the vaccine manufacturers or anyone else. This strikes me as one of the worst signs in my lifetime that corporations have taken over government on an essentially complete level.”
US Whistleblower Highlights Underreporting
In mid-July 2021, America’s Frontline Doctors, represented by Renz Law,6 filed a lawsuit7 against the secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Xavier Becerra. In that lawsuit, they cite whistleblower testimony by a computer programmer with expertise in health care data analytics and access to Medicare and Medicaid data maintained by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
According to this whistleblower, the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) under-reports deaths caused by the COVID shots by a conservative factor of five or more. She claims the number of Americans killed by the shots was at least 45,000 as of July 9, 2021.
At that time, VAERS reported 9,048 deaths following COVID injection. That number is now 16,310 (as of October 1, 20218). Using an under-reporting factor of five, that gives us an estimated death toll of 81,550.
COVID Shots May Have Killed More Than 200,000 in the US
Steve Kirsch, executive director of the COVID-19 Early Treatment Fund, has come up with even more drastic numbers. In the video “Vaccine Secrets: COVID Crisis,”9 he argues that VAERS can be used to determine causality, and shows how the VAERS data indicate more than 212,000 Americans have already been killed by the COVID shots.10
Anywhere from 2 million to 5 million have also been injured by them in some way. Kirsch is so confident in his analyses, he’s offered a $1 million academic grant to anyone who can show his analysis is flawed by a factor of four or more. He’s even offered $1 million to any official willing to simply have a public debate with him about the data, and none has accepted the challenge.
Woman’s Obituary Blames COVID Vaccine for Her Death
While it may be challenging to determine exactly how many people have died as a direct result of the COVID shots, we can be certain that deaths are occurring.
One Oregon woman’s obituary11 went viral after her family blamed side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine on her death. The family minced no words, calling out state and local governments for their “heavy-handed vaccine mandates.” Jessica Berg Wilson left behind a husband and two young daughters, aged 5 and 3.
“Jessica Berg Wilson, 37, of Seattle, Washington, passed away unexpectedly September 7, 2021 from COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) surrounded by her loving family,” the obituary states.12
“Jessica was an exceptionally healthy and vibrant 37-year-old young mother with no underlying health conditions … Local and state governments were determined to strip away her right to consult her wisdom and enjoy her freedom.
She had been vehemently opposed to taking the vaccine, knowing she was in good health and of a young age and thus not at risk for serious illness. In her mind, the known and unknown risks of the unproven vaccine were more of a threat.
But, slowly, day by day, her freedom to choose was stripped away. Her passion to be actively involved in her children’s education — which included being a Room Mom — was, once again, blocked by government mandate.
Ultimately, those who closed doors and separated mothers from their children prevailed. It cost Jessica her life. It cost her children the loving embrace of their caring mother. And it cost her husband the sacred love of his devoted wife.”
Picture of Jessica (killed by COVID jab) with her family.
COVID Jab Effects Are Rapidly Waning
To add insult to injury, there’s ample evidence showing that whatever benefit you glean from the COVID jab is short-lived, requiring you to risk life and limb yet again with another booster shot (and probably more to come after that).
If you need a refresher on the potential mechanisms of harm, download and read Stephanie Seneff’s excellent paper,13 “Worse Than The Disease: Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19,” published in the International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice and Research in collaboration with Dr. Greg Nigh.
Among those incriminating data sets is an analysis by Humetrix,14 which assessed the effectiveness of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against the delta variant among 5.6 million Medicare beneficiaries, aged 65 and older. Three key questions answered by the data analysis are:
- Is vaccine effectiveness waning over time?
- Is vaccine effectiveness reduced for the delta variant?
- Does the need for a booster shot vary by sub-population?
The executive summary lays out the answers:
- Yes, the effectiveness of both Moderna and Pfizer’s injections rapidly wane in this cohort.
- As of mid-August 2021, the vaccine effectiveness against delta infection was only 41% and effectiveness against hospitalization due to the delta variant was 62%, both of which are “lower than previously reported.”
- The shots were even less effective in those over the age of 75, and a breakthrough hospitalization risk model suggests prioritizing people over age 65 for boosters.
Breakthrough Infections Don’t Seem so Rare in the Elderly
According to Humetrix, between January 2021 and August 14, 2021, 5.6 million Medicare beneficiaries (out of 20 million) were fully vaccinated with either two doses of Pfizer or Moderna, or one dose of Janssen.
Of those, 148,000 experienced a breakthrough infection, 30,000 required hospitalization and 9,400 needed intensive care. That means breakthrough infections in this age group occur at a rate of about 1 in 38, which doesn’t strike me as being particularly rare.
As per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance, patients were only considered fully vaccinated two weeks after the second dose. So, anyone who developed COVID-19 symptoms before then were not counted.
While the analysis reports success, saying the hospitalization rate for breakthrough infections was reduced by one-third compared to the hospitalization rate between March and December 2020, and the death rate in breakthrough infections was reduced six-fold, a central problem remains.
The shots don’t protect you for very long. As shown on Page 8 of the PowerPoint, the breakthrough infection rate at five and six months’ post-vaccination is double the rate at three and four months’ post-vaccination.
Considering the risk of lethal vaccine injury is elevated in the elderly — as noted by the Norwegian Medicines Agency — starting them on a treadmill of booster shots strikes me as an idea that can only end in heartbreak for families around the world.
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Featured image is from America’s Frontline DoctorsThe original source of this article is Mercola
Global Research, October 22, 2021
10 October 2021
The CDC released more data into VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System) this past Friday which included cases through October 1, 2021.
The U.S. Government is now reporting that in the past 10 months since the emergency use authorization for the COVID-19 shots 16,310 people have died following those shots. (Source.)
By way of contrast, prior to December, 2020, the date when the first COVID-19 shots were given emergency use authorization, 6,214 people reportedly died following ALL FDA-approved vaccines for the past 30 years. (Source.)
So in the past 10 months, over 2.5X more people have died following COVID-19 shots than people dying after all vaccines for the past 30 years, according to official government statistics.
In addition to recording over 2.5X more people dying after a COVID-19 shot, in the past 10 months following COVID-19 shots there have been more permanent disabilities, more life threatening reactions, and more hospitalizations than the past 30 years following all vaccines.
And yet the CDC and the FDA continue to lie to the American people and people around the word by claiming COVID-19 shots are “Safe and Effective.”
In addition to these recorded deaths following COVID-19 shots, the VAERS database has now recorded 2,102 fetal deaths following the injection of COVID-19 shots into pregnant women for the past 10 months. (Source.)
By way of contrast, VAERS lists 2,184 fetal deaths following all vaccines for the past 30 years. (Source.) So about as many babies have been lost to pregnant women for the past 10 months following COVID-19 shots as have been lost to pregnant women for the past 30 years following all vaccines.
And yet the CDC and FDA are telling all pregnant women to get a COVID-19 shot. (Source.)
Record Number of People Suffering Blood Clots and Heart Disease Following COVID-19 Shots
The CDC admits that there are risks of blood clots (thrombosis) and heart disease (myocarditis and pericarditis) from the COVID-19 shots, especially among young males.
But they brush aside these known side effects as “rare” and continue to push at-risk people to get the shots.
They do this through “selective bias” by only including in their reports some of these side effects, but not all of them.
Fortunately, the VAERS database is open to the public to fact-check their claims. We have run searches on ALL cases of both thrombosis and carditis, and then compared that data to the data associated with all vaccines for the past 30 years by way of comparison.
The most recent (10.1.21) data entered into VAERS for COVID-19 shots during the past 10 months lists 12,553 cases of thrombosis (blood clots), resulting in 589 deaths, 869 permanent disabilities, and 2,543 life threatening events. (Source.)CDC: 11,940 Dead 618,648 Injuries and 1,175 Unborn Babies Dead Following COVID-19 Shots
Using the same data set, we performed the exact same search for thrombosis for ALL vaccines for the past 30 years, which reports 487 cases of thrombosis (blood clots), resulting in 18 deaths, 65 permanent disabilities, and 110 life threatening events. (Source.)
So for the past 10 months following COVID-19 shots, there have been 26X more cases of blood clots, and 33X more deaths from blood clots, than cases and deaths due to blood clots following ALL vaccines for the past 30 years.
How about damaged hearts (carditis)?
According to the most recent (10.1.21) data entered into VAERS for COVID-19 shots during the past 10 months there have been 7,791 cases of carditis, resulting in 119 deaths, 250 permanent disabilities, and 867 life threatening events.
Using the same data set, we performed the exact same search for carditis for ALL vaccines for the past 30 years, which reports 911 cases, 97 deaths, 43 permanent disabilities, and 135 life threatening events.
So for the past 10 months following COVID-19 shots, there have been 8.5X more cases of heart disease, and 1.2X more deaths due to heart problems than cases and deaths due to heart problems following ALL vaccines for the past 30 years.
The Genocide of Our Senior Citizens
Seniors over the age of 65 comprise 76% of the recorded deaths following a COVID-19 shot, which translates to 12,396 deaths according to the latest statistics. (Source.)
How many seniors have died following vaccination for all vaccines for the past 30 years, before the COVID-19 shots were given emergency use authorization?
There were 1,068 deaths in people over the age of 65 following ALL vaccines for the past 30 years. (Source.)
So for the past 10 months, there have been 11.6X more deaths among people over the age of 65 than there have been for the past 30 years following ALL vaccines.
And yet the CDC and FDA just approved a 3rd “booster” COVID-19 shot for this age group.
These are the Reported Numbers, but What are the True Numbers of Dead and Injured following COVID-19 Shots?
Ever since the VAERS database began, it has been known that the system is a “passive” system, and is vastly under-reported.
Some estimates over the years have been published that theorized that perhaps only 1% of all cases are reported.
And we know from testimonies today of frontline workers working with patients in the hospitals that there is tremendous pressure put on nurses and doctors to NOT report side effects from the COVID-19 shots to the VAERS database.
But now, a comprehensive analysis regarding the under-reporting of COVID-19 adverse events has been conducted by Dr. Jessica Rose, who has a BSc in Applied Mathematics, an MSc in Immunology, and a PhD in Computational Biology.
Based on her analysis, which is already over 1 month old, at least 150,000 people have died following COVID-19 shots in the United States.
This is maybe the most brilliant analysis of the VAERS data I have ever seen. What Dr. Rose did was take an independent analysis of a single VAERS event, one that the FDA and CDC admitted was an adverse reaction based on trials before the shots were even authorized, anaphylaxis, and then looked at independent studies reporting the rate of anaphylaxis to determine the true percentage, compared to what is actually being reported in VAERS.
What she found was that anaphylaxis was being under-reported in VAERS by 41X. Read her full comprehensive analysis here: STUDY: Government’s Own Data Reveals that at Least 150,000 Probably DEAD in U.S. Following COVID-19 Vaccines
So as damning as the government’s current data is which I just explained above in this article, take these statistics for the past 10 months following COVID-19 shots and multiply them by 41X, and then you will get a truer number of reality than what the government is currently reporting.
This is, by far, the biggest cover-up and scandal in the history of the human race.
A Universal Vaccine for Everyone on the Planet has been the Goal for the Eugenic Tyrants for Decades
If you have not yet seen the October, 2019 video that was recorded pre-COVID-19 where Anthony Fauci and other Globalists planned for a new kind of “Universal Flu Vaccine” that implemented new, untested technology called “mRNA” technology, then please go read my report and watch that video, as it will explain why we are at this place today in human history where medical tyrants who believe that they control the human race and the planet have been planning this “vaccine” for many years now.
This video will reveal to you just how it can be that human life in 2021 has little to no value in the eugenicist psychopaths’ minds who believe that billions of people need to die to save humanity and the planet.
This knowledge can potentially save your life, and the lives of others who are still walking in the dark and have no clue as to what is actually transpiring in our world today.
Note to readers: Please click the share buttons above or below. Follow us on Instagram, @crg_globalresearch. Forward this article to your email lists. Crosspost on your blog site, internet forums. etc.The original source of this article is Health Impact News
Data on Mortality in the Most Vaccinated Countries. Increased Hospitalizations of the Vaccinated
Global Research, October 22, 2021
First published on September 30, 2021
Since the beginning of the health crisis, the French government has claimed that early treatment was ineffective. It has imposed major restrictions on our freedoms, in particular on doctors’ prescriptions,
It has also promised that vaccination would achieve collective immunity, the end of the crisis and a return to normal life.
But the failure for 18 months of this so-called “health strategy” based on false simulations, innumerable lies, promises never kept, as well as the propaganda and fear campaign has become unbearable.
In turn this has been followed by the extortion of consent to be vaccinated, by outright blackmail, while curtailing our freedoms to move and socialize, our right to work and engage in leisure activities.
Are the current vaccines that they want to impose on us effective?
Can they lead to a collective immunity or is it only a myth? To answer this question, we will make the current sanitary assessment of the most vaccinated countries according to the figures provided by the World Health Organization and the curves of OurWorldinData. (From Vaccine outset in December 2020 to September 15, 2021)
Record mortality in Gibraltar, champion of Astra Zeneca injections
Gibraltar (34,000 inhabitants) started vaccination in December 2020 when the health agency counted only 1040 confirmed cases and 5 deaths attributed to covid19 in this country. After a very comprehensive vaccination blitz, achieving 115% coverage (vaccination was extended to many Spanish visitors), the number of new infections increased fivefold (to 5314) and the number of deaths increased 19fold. The number of deaths increased 19-fold, reaching 97, i.e. 2853 deaths per million inhabitants, which is one of the European mortality records. But those responsible for the vaccination deny any causal link without proposing any other plausible etiology. And after a few months of calm, the epidemic resumed, confirming that 115% vaccination coverage does not protect against the disease.
Malta: 84% vaccine coverage, but just as ineffective
Malta is one of the European champions of pseudo-vaccines: on this island of 500,000 inhabitants, nearly 800,000 doses have been administered, ensuring a vaccine coverage of nearly 84% with a delay of about 6 months.
But since the beginning of July 2021, the epidemic has started again and the serious (fatal) forms are increasing, forcing the authorities to recognize that vaccination does not protect the population and to impose restrictions.
Here again, the recurrence of the epidemic in terms of cases and mortality proves that a high rate of vaccination does not protect the population.
In Iceland, people no longer believe in herd immunity
In this small country of 360,000 inhabitants, more than 80% are primo-vaccinated and 75% have a complete vaccination cycle. But by mid-July 2021, new daily infections had risen from about 10 to about 120, before stabilizing at a rate higher than the pre-vaccination period. This sudden recurrence convinced the chief epidemiologist of the impossibility of obtaining collective immunity through vaccination. “It’s a myth,” he publicly declared.
Belgium: recurrence of the disease despite vaccinationCovid-19 Vaccines Lead to New Infections and Mortality: The Evidence is Overwhelming
In Belgium, nearly 75% of the population is primo-vaccinated. And 65% of the population has a complete vaccination cycle. However, since the end of June 2021, the number of new daily infections has risen from less than 500 to nearly 2000. As RTBF acknowledges, in the face of the Delta variant, current vaccination is far from sufficient to protect the population.
Singapore abandons the hope of “Zero Covid” through vaccines
This small country is also highly vaccinated and nearly 80% of the population has received at least one dose. But since August 20, 2021, it has had to face an exponential resumption of the epidemic with an increase in cases from about ten in June to more than 150 at the end of July and 1246 cases on September 24.
This uncontrolled recurrence of the disease despite vaccination has led to the abandonment of the strategy of eradicating the virus for a model of “living with the virus” by trying to treat the disease “like the flu“.
In the UK: a worrying rise in infections
The United Kingdom is the European champion of Astra Zeneca vaccination, with more than 70% of the population vaccinated for the first time, and 59% with a complete vaccination schedule. This high “vaccination” rate did not prevent an explosion of cases at the beginning of the summer, with up to 60,000 new cases per day by mid-July.
Faced with this significant resumption of the epidemic despite vaccination, Andrew Pollard, representative of the Oxford Vaccine Group, acknowledged before Parliament: “collective immunity through vaccination is a myth“.
This resumption of infections has been accompanied by a resumption of hospitalizations, severe cases and deaths. According to the official report of August, deaths were more frequent among fully vaccinated patients (679) than among non-vaccinated patients (390), thus cruelly denying the hopes of a protective effect of the vaccine on mortality.
After the last sanitary restrictions were lifted, the epidemic decreased to a level of less than 30,000 cases per day, whereas at the beginning of July, simulations by covid specialists were predicting up to 100,000 new cases per day if the sanitary measures were removed.
Israel: obvious post-vaccination disaster denied by officials
Israel, champion of the Pfizer injection, once everywhere cited as an example of effectiveness, is now being harshly reminded of reality and is now the model of vaccine failure.
70% of the population is primo-vaccinated, and nearly 90% of those at risk have a complete vaccination cycle. But the epidemic has rebounded stronger than ever since the end of June, and more than 11,000 new cases were recorded in 1 day (September 14, 2021) surpassing the peaks seen in January 2021 during the outbreak following the first Pfizer injections by nearly 50%.
This resumption of the epidemic, despite the Pfizer injections, is accompanied by an increase in hospitalizations where the vaccinated represent the majority of those hospitalized.
Vaccination does not protect against severe forms of the disease or against death.
End of July: 71% of the 118 seriously ill Israelis (serious, critical) were fully vaccinated!
This proportion of seriously ill people vaccinated is much higher than the proportion of fully vaccinated people: 61%. To claim that the vaccine protects against serious forms of the disease, as the Israeli Minister of Health imprudently declared, is a mistake (or disinformation?).
In order not to acknowledge its mistakes, the Israeli government remains in denial of this obvious failure and continues to propose only vaccination as a solution. How many more deaths will it take before it follows the example of India or Japan and finally adopts early treatment?
The current pseudo vaccines are not effective enough. They do not prevent the recurrence of the epidemic, nor hospitalizations, nor severe forms, nor death. In Israel and Great Britain, which specify the vaccination status of the victims, the vaccinated suffer from an increased risk of mortality compared to the non-vaccinated.
The pursuit of a vaccine-only policy leads to a deadly impasse, whereas countries that officially advise early treatment (India) or allow their doctors to prescribe it (Japan, Korea) fare much better.
What are our health authorities waiting for to stop believing in false simulations carried out by epidemiologists who are too closely linked to vaccine companies, to look at the proven facts and to interrupt their deceptive and deleterious pro-vaccination campaign and recommend early treatment?
The continuation of the ban on early treatment by treating physicians leads to a loss of chances for many patients and directly engages the responsibility of the government and particularly the Minister of Health.
Dr Gérard Delépine is an oncologist and statistician
Translated from French by Global Research.
 For the first time in 2500 years…
 SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England Technical briefing 21
Published August 2021 Public Health England Gateway number : GOV 9374 20 August 2021
The original source of this article is nouveau-monde.ca, published on our French language web site mondialisation.ca
Copyright © Dr. Gérard Delépine, nouveau-monde.ca, 2021The original source of this article is Global ResearchCopyright © Gérard Delépine, Global Research, 2021
Thomas J. Penn is a US citizen and has lived in Germany for many years. He was a non-commissioned infantry officer in the US Army. He studied finance and management and has extensive experience in the financial markets. You can follow him on Twitter and Telegram at @ThomasJPenn.
21 Oct, 2021
Western politicians and central bankers are quick to offer explanations for rapidly rising prices – from bottlenecks in supply chains to their favorite bogeyman, Vladimir Putin. They don’t dare mention the real cause: themselves.
“Inflation is always and everywhere a purely monetary phenomenon” – Milton Friedman.
Prices in Western economies continue to skyrocket – whether in real estate, stock markets, cryptocurrencies, food, consumer goods, or energy. We are consistently seeing massive price increases that far outpace wage growth. In recent months, the situation has been getting increasingly worse, and we have heard nothing but excuses from the political establishment: from bottlenecks in supply chains to allegations that Russian President Vladimir Putin is personally manipulating the supply of natural gas. Of course, the Western establishment would never consider putting the blame where it belongs – on itself.
Although many in the financial industry and in business and politics try to disguise this fact, inflation is, at its core, an expansion of the money supply. Plain and simple. Price increases are merely a corresponding symptom of a growing money supply. The more money in circulation to chase goods, the more prices rise. Where price increases are most acute depends on how the newly created currency is distributed in society.
After the United States failed to meet its obligation to redeem US dollars for gold in the early 1970s, it was able to drag the world onto the fiat currency system. This system uses paper currencies backed by nothing more than government decrees. The United States is at the heart of this system as the issuer of the world’s reserve currency – the US dollar. This special status allows the US to print the dollar to great excess because its status as a reserve currency creates foreign demand for it, which allows the US to export its inflation to the rest of the world. As a result, the US has the ability to create massive deficits. This mechanism also allows the European Central Bank (ECB) to create massive deficits as well, as long as it coordinates its monetary policy with the Federal Reserve. Of course, any country that rejects the US dollar usually ends up in the crosshairs of the US government.
Crisis, followed by crisis, followed by...
However, there is a catch. Every crisis is met with an expansion of the money supply and the manipulation of interest rates to stimulate artificial demand. This, in turn, lays the groundwork for the next, larger crisis by enabling ever greater mal-investment. In previous cycles, price increases resulting from a deliberate expansion of the money supply were largely confined to the stock markets and real estate, as much of the monetary expansion was concentrated in the financial sector, triggering a so-called wealth effect among holders of real estate mortgages and owners of stocks.
In the age of fiat money, central bankers and politicians would have us believe that inflation is a positive development. They set absurd “inflation targets” and insist that any inflation above their stated “target” of 2% per year is “transitory.” Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell expresses this sentiment at almost every Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting, and ECB President Christine Lagarde has naturally echoed this belief.
Have you ever gone shopping and noticed that the price of your favorite product has doubled and jumped for joy because of the increase? No, of course you haven’t. Inflation only benefits central banks and governments trying to pay off their massive debts. The only catch is that they have to destroy your purchasing power to do it – a fact they want to hide from you.
The monetary expansion that followed the Great Financial Crisis of 2008, that is, the printing of money, or quantitative easing (QE), to allow interest rates to fall to near zero, began to lose momentum in the fall of 2019 when serious problems developed in the overnight lending market in the United States – also known as the repurchase agreement (repo) market. Essentially, the Federal Reserve was trying to roll back the support it had provided in the wake of the 2008 crisis, which in turn led to the repo crisis. Of course, the 2008 crisis itself was triggered by the monetary policy response to the 2000 recession.
This monetary system is nearing its inevitable end
Central banks desperately needed an excuse to once again expand their balance sheets and cut interest rates. The repo crisis provided the Fed with the pretext to resume QE and pump tens of billions of dollars of liquidity into the market every month. It refused to call it QE at the time, but that’s exactly what it was. Not long after that came the Covid-19 pandemic, which provided the perfect cover for Western governments, driven primarily by the structure of the current monetary paradigm with the world’s reserve currency – the US dollar – and its issuer, the Federal Reserve, at its center, to once again conjure trillions of dollars and euros literally out of thin air and artificially manipulate interest rates to zero – even negative – in a desperate attempt to prop up the crumbling monetary system.
Much of the current round of monetary expansion has been distributed to citizens in the form of helicopter money, or direct cash payments. This is a new development and a clear signal that this monetary system is nearing its inevitable end. Trillions in newly created currencies are now chasing the same supply of resources that existed before the pandemic. Basically, we live in a finite system with finite natural resources. Yet, at least for now, we still have the ability to infinitely expand the monetary supply with which to chase those finite resources, resulting in what amounts to endless artificial demand.
The spectre of hyperinflation
And now the catch. We are now at a point where Western central banks are, frankly, trapped. Interest rates have been artificially manipulated to zero. But neither the Fed nor the ECB has yet begun to reduce their balance sheets, although they keep saying they will eventually do so. Central banks now have no policy tools to respond to the next crisis. A crisis that will ironically and inevitably result from the misallocation they fueled by recklessly expanding their balance sheets and cutting interest rates to zero during the pandemic.
When the next crisis erupts, it will most likely come again from the repo market in the United States. Interest rates simply cannot be manipulated any lower as a countermeasure to the next crisis. If the central banks withdraw the current stimulus that our economies are currently hobbling along on, the whole system will collapse. That’s why they only talk about reducing their balance sheets and allowing interest rates to rise instead of actually doing so. In the US alone, interest on the national debt is the fourth largest budget item – at interest rates of 0%! Imagine interest rates of 6%, 7% or 8% percent! The US would be bankrupt overnight. In response to the inevitable next crisis, they will have no choice but to flood the financial system with even more paper money, which sooner or later will lead to hyperinflation.
Western central bankers and politicians simply refuse to allow the necessary deflation that our system so desperately needs because over the last 50 years they have created a financial bubble so large that if left to burst unchecked it would plunge the world into a catastrophe that would make the Great Depression of the 1930s look like a Sunday walk in the park. However, their power rests entirely on this system, and they have no incentive to do the right thing.
What we need in the West is a strict, disciplined and controlled reduction in the money supply that would occur gradually over decades and a return to a sound monetary system. What we are currently experiencing and will continue to experience in the future is the exact opposite and will lead to the same catastrophic results that the uncontrolled bursting of the bubble would. As the unsustainability of the current paradigm becomes increasingly undeniable, the status quo will do everything in its power to maintain control of the collapsing system, including using climate change as an excuse to create trillions in new currencies out of thin air.
Our Western monetary system is like a brain-dead patient
Imagine an athlete on steroids. That athlete may seem unbeatable on steroids, but without those injections, we are left with something very unimpressive. An economy built on artificial 0% interest rates and constant injections of endless fiat money conjured out of thin air resembles that of an athlete on steroids, and we all know what long-term steroid abuse leads to. Unfortunately for us in the West, we have been abusing the proverbial steroids long past our physical expiration date. Right now, our Western monetary system is more like a brain-dead patient being propped up on life support.
In anything remotely resembling a free market, savings from productive undertakings are supposed to spur economic growth. Interest rates, which are simply the cost of borrowing money, are supposed to be determined by market forces, not a de facto politburo in the form of unelected central bankers. Businesses should grow because they remain competitive, not because they have access to cheap paper money conjured out of thin air by central banks. This is why Western mega-corporations never go away and just keep getting bigger. This happens at the expense of small businesses that don’t have access to this cheap fiat.
The facade of democracy erected on the current monetary system will continue to collapse as this system is played out to its logical end – namely hyperinflation. And when the central bankers – and the politicians who enable them – finally bring the Western world to its knees, remember that they are the ones to blame – not the Russians, not the Chinese, no one else. Only them.
Eva Bartlett is a Canadian independent journalist and activist. She has spent years on the ground covering conflict zones in the Middle East, especially in Syria and Palestine (where she lived for nearly four years).
Follow her on Twitter @EvaKBartlett
21 Oct, 2021
Anti-vaccination, anti-mask and anti-pandemic protesters and their supporters seen in front of the Alberta Legislature Building during the weekly protest. © Artur Widak / NurPhoto via Getty Images
In Canada, the supposedly benevolent country that prides itself on inclusivity, Covid totalitarianism has become unavoidably apparent, with its decision that soon only the fully vaccinated can travel.
Vaccine mandates have also been imposed on healthcare workers, municipal employees and federal public servants. Basically, as part of what PM Justin Trudeau called one of the world’s strictest vaccine-mandate policies, unjabbed Canadians are being increasingly restricted/excluded not only from work, but from social life as well. Supposedly, this is done for their well-being and health. I argue, though, that it’s nothing but “medical fascism.”
Some months ago, much ado was made in media around the world when the government of Canada shed crocodile tears for the country’s imprisonment, torture, starvation and murder of indigenous children in the horrific ‘residential school’ system. The government, we were meant to believe, suddenly cared for the people it had sought to erase.
But, aside from many examples of that being mere lip service, it has become clear, over the past year and a half plus, that the government doesn’t care for Canadians, period.
Under some of the world’s longest lockdowns, Canadians had their businesses shuttered, were deprived of contact with their elderly, were prevented from worshipping and holding holiday gatherings (while Canadian leadership steadfastly ignored the rules) and, more seriously, were deprived of critical medical care—all in the name of public health.
Starting from October 30, only the Covid-jabbed can travel by plane or train in Canada. While huge numbers of Canadians have got the shots, many others have legitimate concerns about the safety of vaccines, with good reason.
When Dr. Byram Bridle, associate professor of viral immunology—a well-recognized expert in vaccinology—refused vaccination due to his natural immunity, he was derided by media and banned from his University of Guelph campus. He made clear that he is, “a vaccine lover and an innovator in this field,” but has concerns about the, “possible link between this heart inflammation that is occurring and these COVID-19 vaccines.”
And although I already realized it is unlikely that I’ll see my family in Canada in person again, the newest ‘no jab, no travel’ dictates seal the deal for me.
But, for people within Canada, it is more than just the matter of being able to see loved ones again. For some, these new dictates might mean a matter of life or death: whether they can get vital medical care and whether they can earn a living.
One such person is an Italian researcher living in Canada since 2001, who was in that year diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis. I recently spoke with Valentina Capurri about how the vaccine mandates will affect her.
She explained that, following her MS diagnosis, she was offered to participate in a trial program for a new medication. Although a risky decision, she accepted for different reasons, including the health care and medication it would ensure her as a then-lone international student.
She described the importance of the trial, which lasted twelve years.
“Lots of people who had severe effects of MS would have benefitted from the medication. And yet they were not able to access the medication for a reason: because you cannot give a medication whose effect–if everything goes wrong–can be worse than the cure.”
Trials like this, she emphasized, are something every new medication, or vaccine, endure.
“And none of this has been done in this particular case. So that’s what made me a little suspicious about the Covid vaccines.”
Over the past year and a half, she says, she has not been allowed to see her neurologist, all medical appointments at her Toronto hospital were suspended and replaced with phone consultations. No physical visits, no MRIs, just phone calls.
“In 2003, when we had SARS, I used to go once a month to the hospital. Despite the fact that SARS in 2003 had a much higher mortality rate than Covid, we still were allowed to enter the hospital on a regular basis. None of our visits were cancelled back then as they are now.”
Since neither she nor her Canadian husband will take the jab, they will lose their jobs, and thus won’t be able to pay for her expensive MS medication.
“You are forcing me to lose my job, to lose my ability to support myself, just because I am exerting my right not to have an experimental medical procedure done on me. This is worse than fascism, this is absolutely appalling.”
On top of this, now, those needing organ transplants face being denied care if they do not consent to mandatory jabs.
Among other Canadians suspended without pay for their refusal to be jabbed are hundreds of hospital workers, including nurses. The sort of people who might know a thing or two about health…
And, in August, emergency room and family practice physician, Dr. Rochagné Kilian resigned over the unethical and coercive pressuring of Canadians to be jabbed.
While medical workers and average Canadians are being forced out of work, denied medical care, ostracized from society, the government has made clear the rules for thee but not for me adage still applies.
PM Trudeau said all federal workers would be compelled to get fully vaccinated but, as it turns out, that’s not the case. According to an article in the Toronto Sun, roughly 70% of the federal workforce will be exempt from getting vaccines, including: federal judges, meat inspectors, park wardens, postal workers, tax auditors, Commons and Senate staff, soldiers, sailors and air force personnel, and Canada Post employees, among others.
Canada doesn’t even pretend to follow logic any longer. Just full-on medical fascism for the majority of Canadians.
With the introduction of vaccine mandates, it is only a matter of time before Canada reaches Lithuanian-level totalitarianism where the non-jabbed are almost fully excluded from all aspects of society.
Please ask yourselves if you really believe this is about public health.
21 Oct, 2021
FILE PHOTO: LGBTQ activists hold placards during a rally for the rights of transgender people in Kiev, Ukraine, May 22, 2021 © Reuters / Valentyn Ogirenko
A growing campaign in the West to do away with gender-based language defies reason and is subverting human nature, Russian President Vladimir Putin has claimed, arguing children should not be taught biological sex does not exist.
“The discussion about the rights of men and women has turned into a total phantasmagoria in a number of Western countries,” Putin said in a speech to dignitaries and reporters at the Valdai Discussion Club in Sochi, Russia on Thursday. “Those who risk saying that men and women still exist, and that this is a biological fact, are virtually ostracized.”
He listed examples, such as banning words like “mother” and “father” in favor of terms like “parent one and parent two”, as well as “banning the phrase ‘breast milk’ and replacing it with ‘human milk’ so that people insecure about their own gender wouldn’t get upset.”
“And this is not new,” the Russian president went on. “In the 1920s, Soviet culture-warriors invented a so-called ‘newspeak,’ believing that in this way they would create a new sense of consciousness and redefine people’s values.”
“This is not to mention things that are simply monstrous,” he added, “like when children are taught from an early age that a boy can easily become a girl and vice versa. In fact, they are indoctrinating them into the alleged choices that are supposedly available to everyone – removing parents from the equation and forcing the child to make decisions that can ruin their lives.”
This is borderline crime against humanity – all under the guise of ‘progress.’
In 2019, Putin insisted that Russia maintains “a very relaxed attitude towards the LGBT community,” saying, “We aren’t biased against them.” However, he added, “let’s give children an opportunity to grow up and decide afterwards who they want to be. Leave them alone.”
The country introduced a law in 2013 banning the “promotion of non-traditional sexual values among minors” as part of a bill designed to safeguard family values. While it was criticized by a number of international human rights groups at the time, Putin said the measures were important for protecting children.
“I don’t care about a person’s orientation, and I myself know some people who are gay. We are on friendly terms. I’m not prejudiced in any way,” he added back then.
The Brownstone Institute lists 81 of the highest-quality, complete, most robust scientific studies and evidence reports/position statements on natural immunity as compared to the COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity.
Oct 19, 2021
We should not force COVID vaccines on anyone when the evidence shows that naturally acquired immunity is equal to or more robust and superior to existing vaccines. Instead, we should respect the right of the bodily integrity of individuals to decide for themselves.
Public health officials and the medical establishment with the help of the politicized media are misleading the public with assertions that the COVID-19 shots provide greater protection than natural immunity.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director Rochelle Walensky, for example, was deceptive in her October 2020 published LANCET statement that “there is no evidence for lasting protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection” and that “the consequence of waning immunity would present a risk to vulnerable populations for the indefinite future.”
Immunology and virology 101 have taught us over a century that natural immunity confers protection against a respiratory virus’s outer coat proteins, and not just one, e.g., the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein.ORDER TODAY: Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.’s New Book — ‘The Real Anthony Fauci’
The vaccinated are showing viral loads (very high) similar to the unvaccinated, and the vaccinated are as infectious. Riemersma et al. also report Wisconsin data that corroborate how the vaccinated individuals who get infected with the Delta variant can potentially (and are) transmit(ting) SARS-CoV-2 to others (potentially to the vaccinated and unvaccinated).
This troubling situation of the vaccinated being infectious and transmitting the virus emerged in seminal nosocomial outbreak papers by Chau et al. (HCWs in Vietnam), the Finland hospital outbreak (spread among HCWs and patients), and the Israel hospital outbreak (spread among HCWs and patients).
These studies also revealed that the personal protective equipment (PPE) and masks were essentially ineffective in the healthcare setting. Again, the Marek’s disease in chickens and the vaccination situation explains what we are potentially facing with these leaky vaccines (increased transmission, faster transmission, and more ‘hotter’ variants).
Moreover, existing immunity should be assessed before any vaccination, via an accurate, dependable and reliable antibody test (or T cell immunity test) or be based on documentation of prior infection (a previous positive PCR or antigen test). Such would be evidence of immunity that is equal to that of vaccination and the immunity should be provided the same societal status as any vaccine-induced immunity.Double your impact! When you make a donation to Children’s Health Defense, your donation will be matched — up to $1 million! Donate Now!
This will function to mitigate the societal anxiety with these forced vaccine mandates and societal upheaval due to job loss, denial of societal privileges etc. Tearing apart the vaccinated and the unvaccinated in a society — separating them — is not medically or scientifically supportable.
The Brownstone Institute previously documented 30 studies on natural immunity as it relates to COVID-19.
This follow-up chart is the most updated and comprehensive library list of 81 of the highest-quality, complete, most robust scientific studies and evidence reports/position statements on natural immunity as compared to the COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity and allows you to draw your own conclusion.
I’ve benefited from the input of many to put this together, especially my co-authors:
- Dr. Harvey Risch, M.D., Ph.D. (Yale School of Public Health)
- Dr. Howard Tenenbaum, Ph.D. ( Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto)
- Dr. Ramin Oskoui, M.D. (Foxhall Cardiology, Washington)
- Dr. Peter McCullough, M.D. (Truth for Health Foundation, Texas)
- Dr. Parvez Dara, M.D. (consultant, Medical Hematologist and Oncologist)
Evidence on natural immunity versus COVID-19 vaccine induced immunity as of Oct. 15:
|Study / report title, author, and year published||Predominant finding on natural immunity|
|1) Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals, Shrestha, 2021||“Cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was examined among 52,238 employees in an American healthcare system.“The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection remained almost zero among previously infected unvaccinated subjects, previously infected subjects who were vaccinated, and previously uninfected subjects who were vaccinated, compared with a steady increase in cumulative incidence among previously uninfected subjects who remained unvaccinated.“Not one of the 1359 previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated had a SARS-CoV-2 infection over the duration of the study. Individuals who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to benefit from COVID-19 vaccination…”|
|2) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls, Le Bert, 2020||“Studied T cell responses against the structural (nucleocapsid (N) protein) and non-structural (NSP7 and NSP13 of ORF1) regions of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals convalescing from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (n = 36).“In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N protein … showed that patients (n = 23) who recovered from SARS possess long-lasting memory T cells that are reactive to the N protein of SARS-CoV 17 years after the outbreak of SARS in 2003; these T cells displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS-CoV-2.”|
|3) Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections,Gazit, 2021||“A retrospective observational study comparing three groups:“(1) SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals who received a two-dose regimen of the BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine, (2) previously infected individuals who have not been vaccinated and (3) previously infected and single dose vaccinated individuals, found para a 13 fold increased risk of breakthrough Delta infections in double vaccinated persons, and a 27 fold increased risk for symptomatic breakthrough infection in the double vaccinated relative to the natural immunity recovered persons …“ … the risk of hospitalization was 8 times higher in the double vaccinated (para) … this analysis demonstrated that natural immunity affords longer lasting and stronger protection against infection, symptomatic disease and hospitalization due to the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine-induced immunity.”|
|4) Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, Le Bert, 2021||“Studied SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells in a cohort of asymptomatic (n = 85) and symptomatic (n = 75) COVID-19 patients after seroconversion …“thus, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2–infected individuals are not characterized by weak antiviral immunity; on the contrary, they mount a highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response.”|
|5) Large-scale study of antibody titer decay following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 infection, Israel, 2021||“A total of 2,653 individuals fully vaccinated by two doses of vaccine during the study period and 4,361 convalescent patients were included.“Higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were observed in vaccinated individuals (median 1581 AU/mL IQR [533.8-5644.6]) after the second vaccination, than in convalescent individuals (median 355.3 AU/mL IQR [141.2-998.7]; p<0.001).“In vaccinated subjects, antibody titers decreased by up to 40% each subsequent month while in convalescents they decreased by less than 5% per month …“this study demonstrates individuals who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine have different kinetics of antibody levels compared to patients who had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, with higher initial levels but a much faster exponential decrease in the first group.”|
|6) SARS-CoV-2 re-infection risk in Austria, Pilz, 2021||Researchers recorded: “40 tentative re-infections in 14, 840 COVID-19 survivors of the first wave (0.27%) and 253 581 infections in 8, 885, 640 individuals of the remaining general population (2.85%) translating into an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.09 (0.07 to 0.13)…relatively low re-infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Austria.“Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection is comparable with the highest available estimates on vaccine efficacies.”Additionally, hospitalization in only five out of 14,840 (0.03%) people and death in one out of 14,840 (0.01%) (tentative re-infection).|
|7) mRNA vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells recognize B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021||“Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx.“These results provide reassurance that vaccine-elicited T cells respond robustly to the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, confirm that convalescents may not need a second vaccine dose.”|
|8) Good news: Mild COVID-19 induces lasting antibody protection, Bhandari, 2021||“Months after recovering from mild cases of COVID-19, people still have immune cells in their body pumping out antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19, according to a study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.“Such cells could persist for a lifetime, churning out antibodies all the while.“The findings, published May 24 in the journal Nature, suggest that mild cases of COVID-19 leave those infected with lasting antibody protection and that repeated bouts of illness are likely to be uncommon.”|
|9) Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months, Wajnberg, 2021||“Neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein persisted for at least 5 months after infection.“Although continued monitoring of this cohort will be needed to confirm the longevity and potency of this response, these preliminary results suggest that the chance of reinfection may be lower than is currently feared.”|
|10) Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2, Gaebler, 2020||“Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by five-fold in pseudo-type virus assays. In contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells is unchanged.“Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies they express have greater somatic hypermutation, increased potency and resistance to RBD mutations, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response …“we conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.”|
|11) Persistence of neutralizing antibodies a year after SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, Haveri, 2021||“Assessed the persistence of serum antibodies following WT SARS-CoV-2 infection at 8 and 13 months after diagnosis in 367 individuals …“found that NAb against the WT virus persisted in 89% and S-IgG in 97% of subjects for at least 13 months after infection.”|
|12) Quantifying the risk of SARS‐CoV‐2 reinfection over time, Murchu, 2021||“Eleven large cohort studies were identified that estimated the risk of SARS‐CoV‐2 reinfection over time, including three that enrolled healthcare workers and two that enrolled residents and staff of elderly care homes.“Across studies, the total number of PCR‐positive or antibody‐positive participants at baseline was 615,777, and the maximum duration of follow‐up was more than 10 months in three studies.“Reinfection was an uncommon event (absolute rate 0%–1.1%), with no study reporting an increase in the risk of reinfection over time.”|
|13) Natural immunity to COVID is powerful. Policymakers seem afraid to say so, Makary, 2021||Makary writes “it’s okay to have an incorrect scientific hypothesis. But when new data proves it wrong, you have to adapt.“Unfortunately, many elected leaders and public health officials have held on far too long to the hypothesis that natural immunity offers unreliable protection against covid-19 — a contention that is being rapidly debunked by science.“More than 15 studies have demonstrated the power of immunity acquired by previously having the virus.“A 700,000-person study from Israel two weeks ago found that those who had experienced prior infections were 27 times less likely to get a second symptomatic covid infection than those who were vaccinated.“This affirmed a June Cleveland Clinic study of health-care workers (who are often exposed to the virus), in which none who had previously tested positive for the coronavirus got reinfected.“The study authors concluded that ‘individuals who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to benefit from covid-19 vaccination.’“And in May, a Washington University study found that even a mild covid infection resulted in long-lasting immunity.”|
|14) SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity, Nielsen, 2021||“203 recovered SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in Denmark between April 3rd and July 9th 2020, at least 14 days after COVID-19 symptom recovery …“report broad serological profiles within the cohort, detecting antibody binding to other human coronaviruses … the viral surface spike protein was identified as the dominant target for both neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T-cell responses.“Overall, the majority of patients had robust adaptive immune responses, regardless of their disease severity.”|
|15) Protection of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is similar to that of BNT162b2 vaccine protection: A three-month nationwide experience from Israel, Goldberg, 2021||“Analyze an updated individual-level database of the entire population of Israel to assess the protection efficacy of both prior infection and vaccination in preventing subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization with COVID-19, severe disease, and death due to COVID-19 …“vaccination was highly effective with overall estimated efficacy for documented infection of 92·8% (CI:[92·6, 93·0]); hospitalization 94·2% (CI:[93·6, 94·7]); severe illness 94·4% (CI:[93·6, 95·0]); and death 93·7% (CI:[92·5, 94·7]).“Similarly, the overall estimated level of protection from prior SARS-CoV-2 infection for documented infection is 94·8% (CI: [94·4, 95·1]); hospitalization 94·1% (CI: [91·9, 95·7]); and severe illness 96·4% (CI: [92·5, 98·3])…results question the need to vaccinate previously-infected individuals.”|
|16) Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 infection among previously infected or vaccinated employees, Kojima, 2021||“Employees were divided into three groups: (1) SARS-CoV-2 naïve and unvaccinated, (2) previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and (3) vaccinated.“Person-days were measured from the date of the employee first test and truncated at the end of the observation period. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as two positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests in a 30-day period …“4313, 254 and 739 employee records for groups 1, 2, and 3 … previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 were associated with decreased risk for infection or re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in a routinely screened workforce.“There was no difference in the infection incidence between vaccinated individuals and individuals with previous infection.”|
|17) Having SARS-CoV-2 once confers much greater immunity than a vaccine — but vaccination remains vital, Wadman, 2021||“Israelis who had an infection were more protected against the Delta coronavirus variant than those who had an already highly effective COVID-19 vaccine …“the newly released data show people who once had a SARS-CoV-2 infection were much less likely than never-infected, vaccinated people to get Delta, develop symptoms from it, or become hospitalized with serious COVID-19.”|
|18) One-year sustained cellular and humoral immunities of COVID-19 convalescents, Zhang, 2021||“A systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents; SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset.“At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset.“Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively.”|
|19) Functional SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Memory Persists after Mild COVID-19, Rodda, 2021||“Recovered individuals developed SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies, neutralizing plasma, and memory B and memory T cells that persisted for at least 3 months.“Our data further reveal that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG memory B cells increased over time.“Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-specific memory lymphocytes exhibited characteristics associated with potent antiviral function: memory T cells secreted cytokines and expanded upon antigen re-encounter, whereas memory B cells expressed receptors capable of neutralizing virus when expressed as monoclonal antibodies.“Therefore, mild COVID-19 elicits memory lymphocytes that persist and display functional hallmarks of antiviral immunity.”|
|20) Discrete Immune Response Signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination Versus Infection, Ivanova, 2021||“Performed multimodal single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood of patients with acute COVID-19 and healthy volunteers before and after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to compare the immune responses elicited by the virus and by this vaccine …“both infection and vaccination induced robust innate and adaptive immune responses, our analysis revealed significant qualitative differences between the two types of immune challenges.“In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients.“ Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects.“Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cells …“we observed the presence of cytotoxic CD4 T cells in COVID-19 patients that were largely absent in healthy volunteers following immunization.“While hyper-activation of inflammatory responses and cytotoxic cells may contribute to immunopathology in severe illness, in mild and moderate disease, these features are indicative of protective immune responses and resolution of infection.”|
|21) SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans, Turner, 2021||“Bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) are a persistent and essential source of protective antibodies …“durable serum antibody titres are maintained by long-lived plasma cells — non-replicating, antigen-specific plasma cells that are detected in the bone marrow long after the clearance of the antigen …“S-binding BMPCs are quiescent, which suggests that they are part of a stable compartment.“Consistently, circulating resting memory B cells directed against SARS-CoV-2 S were detected in the convalescent individuals.“Overall, our results indicate that mild infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune memory in humans …“overall, our data provide strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans robustly establishes the two arms of humoral immune memory: long-lived bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) and memory B-cells.”|
|22) SARS-CoV-2 infection rates of antibody-positive compared with antibody-negative health-care workers in England: a large, multicentre, prospective cohort study (SIREN), Jane Hall, 2021||“The SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation study… 30 625 participants were enrolled into the study …“a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an 84% lower risk of infection, with median protective effect observed 7 months following primary infection.“This time period is the minimum probable effect because seroconversions were not included. This study shows that previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces effective immunity to future infections in most individuals.”|
|23) Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London frontline health-care workers, Houlihan, 2020||“Enrolled 200 patient-facing HCWs between March 26 and April 8, 2020 … represents a 13% infection rate (i.e. 14 of 112 HCWs) within the 1 month of follow-up in those with no evidence of antibodies or viral shedding at enrolment.“By contrast, of 33 HCWs who tested positive by serology but tested negative by RT-PCR at enrolment, 32 remained negative by RT-PCR through follow-up, and one tested positive by RT-PCR on days 8 and 13 after enrolment.”|
|24) Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are associated with protection against reinfection, Lumley, 2021||“Critical to understand whether infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protects from subsequent reinfection …“12219 HCWs participated…prior SARS-CoV-2 infection that generated antibody responses offered protection from reinfection for most people in the six months following infection.”|
|25) Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells, Cohen, 2021||“Evaluate 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally up to 8 months and find durable broad-based immune responses.“SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibit a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cells …“most recovered COVID-19 patients mount broad, durable immunity after infection, spike IgG+ memory B cells increase and persist post-infection, durable polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells recognize distinct viral epitope regions.”|
|26) Single cell profiling of T and B cell repertoires following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, Sureshchandra, 2021||“Used single-cell RNA sequencing and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to two doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease …“natural infection induced expansion of larger CD8 T cell clones occupied distinct clusters, likely due to the recognition of a broader set of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine.”|
|27) SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positivity protects against reinfection for at least seven months with 95% efficacy, Abu-Raddad, 2021||“SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive persons from April 16 to December 31, 2020 with a PCR-positive swab ≥14 days after the first-positive antibody test were investigated for evidence of reinfection, 43,044 antibody-positive persons who were followed for a median of 16.3 weeks … reinfection is rare in the young and international population of Qatar.“Natural infection appears to elicit strong protection against reinfection with an efficacy ~95% for at least seven months.”|
|28) Orthogonal SARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays Enable Surveillance of Low-Prevalence Communities and Reveal Durable Humoral Immunity, Ripperger, 2020||“Conducted a serological study to define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2.“Compared to those with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated virus-neutralizing titers and antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein…neutralizing and spike-specific antibody production persists for at least 5–7 months …“nucleocapsid antibodies frequently become undetectable by 5–7 months.”|
|29) Anti-spike antibody response to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population, Wei, 2021||“In the general population using representative data from 7,256 United Kingdom COVID-19 infection survey participants who had positive swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests from 26-April-2020 to 14-June-2021 …“we estimated antibody levels associated with protection against reinfection likely last 1.5-2 years on average, with levels associated with protection from severe infection present for several years.“These estimates could inform planning for vaccination booster strategies.”|
|30) Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers, Lumley, 2021||“12,541 health care workers participated and had anti-spike IgG measured; 11,364 were followed up after negative antibody results and 1265 after positive results, including 88 in whom seroconversion occurred during follow-up …“a total of 223 anti-spike–seronegative health care workers had a positive PCR test (1.09 per 10,000 days at risk), 100 during screening while they were asymptomatic and 123 while symptomatic, whereas 2 anti-spike–seropositive health care workers had a positive PCR test …“the presence of anti-spike or anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies was associated with a substantially reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in the ensuing 6 months.”|
|31) Researchers find long-lived immunity to 1918 pandemic virus, CIDRAP, 2008and the actual 2008 NATURE journal publication by Yu||“A study of the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic reveals that antibodies to the strain have lasted a lifetime and can perhaps be engineered to protect future generations against similar strains …“the group collected blood samples from 32 pandemic survivors aged 91 to 101 … the people recruited for the study were 2 to 12 years old in 1918 and many recalled sick family members in their households, which suggests they were directly exposed to the virus, the authors report.“The group found that 100% of the subjects had serum-neutralizing activity against the 1918 virus and 94% showed serologic reactivity to the 1918 hemagglutinin. The investigators generated B lymphoblastic cell lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight subjects.“Transformed cells from the blood of 7 of the 8 donors yielded secreting antibodies that bound the 1918 hemagglutinin.”“Yu: ‘here we show that of the 32 individuals tested that were born in or before 1915, each showed sero-reactivity with the 1918 virus, nearly 90 years after the pandemic. Seven of the eight donor samples tested had circulating B cells that secreted antibodies that bound the 1918 HA.“We isolated B cells from subjects and generated five monoclonal antibodies that showed potent neutralizing activity against 1918 virus from three separate donors. These antibodies also cross-reacted with the genetically similar HA of a 1930 swine H1N1 influenza strain.’”|
|32) Live virus neutralisation testing in convalescent patients and subjects vaccinated against 19A, 20B, 20I/501Y.V1 and 20H/501Y.V2 isolates of SARS-CoV-2, Gonzalez, 2021||“No significant difference was observed between the 20B and 19A isolates for HCWs with mild COVID-19 and critical patients. However, a significant decrease in neutralisation ability was found for 20I/501Y.V1 in comparison with 19A isolate for critical patients and HCWs 6-months post infection.“Concerning 20H/501Y.V2, all populations had a significant reduction in neutralising antibody titres in comparison with the 19A isolate.“ Interestingly, a significant difference in neutralisation capacity was observed for vaccinated HCWs between the two variants whereas it was not significant for the convalescent groups …“the reduced neutralising response observed towards the 20H/501Y.V2 in comparison with the 19A and 20I/501Y.V1 isolates in fully immunized subjects with the BNT162b2 vaccine is a striking finding of the study.”|
|33) Differential effects of the second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose on T cell immunity in naïve and COVID-19 recovered individuals, Camara, 2021||“Characterized SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity in naïve and previously infected individuals during full BNT162b2 vaccination …results demonstrate that the second dose increases both the humoral and cellular immunity in naïve individuals.“On the contrary, the second BNT162b2 vaccine dose results in a reduction of cellular immunity in COVID-19 recovered individuals.”|
|34) Op-Ed: Quit Ignoring Natural COVID Immunity, Klausner, 2021||“Epidemiologists estimate over 160 million people worldwide have recovered from COVID-19. Those who have recovered have an astonishingly low frequency of repeat infection, disease, or death.”|
|35) Association of SARS-CoV-2 Seropositive Antibody Test With Risk of Future Infection, Harvey, 2021||“To evaluate evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) among patients with positive vs negative test results for antibodies in an observational descriptive cohort study of clinical laboratory and linked claims data …“the cohort included 3 257 478 unique patients with an index antibody test … patients with positive antibody test results were initially more likely to have positive NAAT results, consistent with prolonged RNA shedding, but became markedly less likely to have positive NAAT results over time, suggesting that seropositivity is associated with protection from infection.”|
|36) SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection risk in healthy young adults: a prospective cohort study, Letizia, 2021||“Investigated the risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection among young adults (CHARM marine study) seropositive for a previous infection … enrolled 3249 participants, of whom 3168 (98%) continued into the 2-week quarantine period. 3076 (95%) participants …“Among 189 seropositive participants, 19 (10%) had at least one positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-week follow-up (1·1 cases per person-year). In contrast, 1079 (48%) of 2247 seronegative participants tested positive (6·2 cases per person-year). The incidence rate ratio was 0·18 (95% CI 0·11–0·28; p<0·001) …“infected seropositive participants had viral loads that were about 10-times lower than those of infected seronegative participants (ORF1ab gene cycle threshold difference 3·95 [95% CI 1·23–6·67]; p=0·004).”|
|37) Associations of Vaccination and of Prior Infection With Positive PCR Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 in Airline Passengers Arriving in Qatar, Bertollini, 2021||“Of 9,180 individuals with no record of vaccination but with a record of prior infection at least 90 days before the PCR test (group 3), 7694 could be matched to individuals with no record of vaccination or prior infection (group 2), among whom PCR positivity was 1.01% (95% CI, 0.80%-1.26%) and 3.81% (95% CI, 3.39%-4.26%), respectively.The relative risk for PCR positivity was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.17-0.28) for vaccinated individuals and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.21-0.34) for individuals with prior infection compared with no record of vaccination or prior infection.”|
|38) Natural immunity against COVID-19 significantly reduces the risk of reinfection: findings from a cohort of sero-survey participants, Mishra, 2021||“Followed up with a subsample of our previous sero-survey participants to assess whether natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a reduced risk of re-infection (India) …“out of the 2238 participants, 1170 were sero-positive and 1068 were sero-negative for antibody against COVID-19.“Our survey found that only 3 individuals in the sero-positive group got infected with COVID-19 whereas 127 individuals reported contracting the infection the sero-negative group …“from the 3 sero-positives re-infected with COVID-19, one had hospitalization, but did not require oxygen support or critical care …“development of antibody following natural infection not only protects against re-infection by the virus to a great extent, but also safeguards against progression to severe COVID-19 disease.”|
|39) Lasting immunity found after recovery from COVID-19, NIH, 2021||“The researchers found durable immune responses in the majority of people studied. Antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which the virus uses to get inside cells, were found in 98% of participants one month after symptom onset.“As seen in previous studies, the number of antibodies ranged widely between individuals.“But, promisingly, their levels remained fairly stable over time, declining only modestly at 6 to 8 months after infection … virus-specific B cells increased over time.“People had more memory B cells six months after symptom onset than at one month afterwards… levels of T cells for the virus also remained high after infection.“Six months after symptom onset, 92% of participants had CD4+ T cells that recognized the virus… 95% of the people had at least 3 out of 5 immune-system components that could recognize SARS-CoV-2 up to 8 months after infection.”|
|40) SARS-CoV-2 Natural Antibody Response Persists for at Least 12 Months in a Nationwide Study From the Faroe Islands, Petersen, 2021||“The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95% at all sampling time points for both assays and remained stable over time; that is, almost all convalescent individuals developed antibodies …“results show that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted at least 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer, indicating that COVID-19-convalescent individuals may be protected from reinfection.”|
|41) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory is sustained in COVID-19 convalescent patients for 10 months with successful development of stem cell-like memory T cells, Jung, 2021||“ex vivo assays to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 convalescent patients up to 317 days post-symptom onset (DPSO), and find that memory T cell responses are maintained during the study period regardless of the severity of COVID-19.“In particular, we observe sustained polyfunctionality and proliferation capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells detected by activation-induced markers, the proportion of stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells is increased, peaking at approximately 120 DPSO.”|
|42) Immune Memory in Mild COVID-19 Patients and Unexposed Donors Reveals Persistent T Cell Responses After SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Ansari, 2021||“Analyzed 42 unexposed healthy donors and 28 mild COVID-19 subjects up to 5 months from the recovery for SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory.“Using HLA class II predicted peptide megapools, we identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in around 66% of the unexposed individuals. Moreover, we found detectable immune memory in mild COVID-19 patients several months after recovery in the crucial arms of protective adaptive immunity; CD4+ T cells and B cells, with a minimal contribution from CD8+ T cells.“Interestingly, the persistent immune memory in COVID-19 patients is predominantly targeted towards the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. This study provides the evidence of both high magnitude pre-existing and persistent immune memory in Indian population.”|
|43) COVID-19 natural immunity, WHO, 2021||“Current evidence points to most individuals developing strong protective immune responses following natural infection with SARSCoV-2.“Within 4 weeks following infection, 90-99% of individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus develop detectable neutralizing antibodies.“The strength and duration of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are not completely understood and currently available data suggests that it varies by age and the severity of symptoms.“Available scientific data suggests that in most people immune responses remain robust and protective against reinfection for at least 6-8 months after infection (the longest follow up with strong scientific evidence is currently approximately 8 months).”|
|44) Antibody Evolution after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination, Cho, 2021||“We conclude that memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination …“boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines would produce a quantitative increase in plasma neutralizing activity but not the qualitative advantage against variants obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.”|
|45) Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland, Gudbjartsson, 2020||“Measured antibodies in serum samples from 30,576 persons in Iceland … of the 1797 persons who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1107 of the 1215 who were tested (91.1%) were seropositive…“results indicate risk of death from infection was 0.3% and that antiviral antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 did not decline within 4 months after diagnosis (para).”|
|46) Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection, Dan, 2021||“Analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥ 6 months post-infection … IgG to the Spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months.“Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month post symptom onset.”|
|47) The prevalence of adaptive immunity to COVID-19 and reinfection after recovery – a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 011 447 individuals, Chivese, 2021||“Fifty-four studies, from 18 countries, with a total of 12 011 447 individuals, followed up to 8 months after recovery, were included.“At 6-8 months after recovery, the prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory remained high; IgG – 90.4% … pooled prevalence of reinfection was 0.2% (95%CI 0.0 – 0.7, I2 = 98.8, 9 studies). Individuals who recovered from COVID-19 had an 81% reduction in odds of a reinfection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.1 – 0.3, I2 = 90.5%, 5 studies).”|
|48) Reinfection Rates among Patients who Previously Tested Positive for COVID-19: a Retrospective Cohort Study, Sheehan, 2021||“Retrospective cohort study of one multi-hospital health system included 150,325 patients tested for COVID-19 infection … prior infection in patients with COVID-19 was highly protective against reinfection and symptomatic disease.“This protection increased over time, suggesting that viral shedding or ongoing immune response may persist beyond 90 days and may not represent true reinfection.”|
|49) Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection 1 Year After Primary Infection in a Population in Lombardy, Italy, Vitale, 2020||“The study results suggest that reinfections are rare events and patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have a lower risk of reinfection.“Natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 appears to confer a protective effect for at least a year, which is similar to the protection reported in recent vaccine studies.”|
|50) Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with protection against symptomatic reinfection, Hanrath, 2021||“We observed no symptomatic reinfections in a cohort of healthcare workers … this apparent immunity to re-infection was maintained for at least 6 months …“test positivity rates were 0% (0/128 [95% CI: 0–2.9]) in those with previous infection compared to 13.7% (290/2115 [95% CI: 12.3–15.2]) in those without (P<0.0001 χ2 test).”|
|51) mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021||“In infection-naïve individuals, the second dose boosted the quantity and altered the phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, while in convalescents the second dose changed neither.“Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx.”|
|52) Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals, Grifoni, 2020||“Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide ‘megapools,’ circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers.“The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%–27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted.”|
|53) NIH Director’s Blog: Immune T Cells May Offer Lasting Protection Against COVID-19, Collins, 2021||“Much of the study on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, has focused on the production of antibodies.“But, in fact, immune cells known as memory T cells also play an important role in the ability of our immune systems to protect us against many viral infections, including — it now appears — COVID-19.An intriguing new study of these memory T cells suggests they might protect some people newly infected with SARS-CoV-2 by remembering past encounters with other human coronaviruses.“This might potentially explain why some people seem to fend off the virus and may be less susceptible to becoming severely ill with COVID-19.”|
|54) Ultrapotent antibodies against diverse and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, Wang, 2021||“Our study demonstrates that convalescent subjects previously infected with ancestral variant SARS-CoV-2 produce antibodies that cross-neutralize emerging VOCs with high potency … potent against 23 variants, including variants of concern.”|
|55) Why COVID-19 Vaccines Should Not Be Required for All Americans, Makary, 2021||“Requiring the vaccine in people who are already immune with natural immunity has no scientific support. While vaccinating those people may be beneficial — and it’s a reasonable hypothesis that vaccination may bolster the longevity of their immunity — to argue dogmatically that they must get vaccinated has zero clinical outcome data to back it.“As a matter of fact, we have data to the contrary: A Cleveland Clinic study found that vaccinating people with natural immunity did not add to their level of protection.”|
|56) Protracted yet coordinated differentiation of long-lived SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells during COVID-19 convalescence, Ma, 2021||“Screened 21 well-characterized, longitudinally-sampled convalescent donors that recovered from mild COVID-19 … following a typical case of mild COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells not only persist but continuously differentiate in a coordinated fashion well into convalescence, into a state characteristic of long-lived, self-renewing memory.”|
|57) Decrease in Measles Virus-Specific CD4 T Cell Memory in Vaccinated Subjects, Naniche, 2004||“Characterized the profiles of measles vaccine (MV) vaccine-induced antigen-specific T cells over time since vaccination.“In a cross-sectional study of healthy subjects with a history of MV vaccination, we found that MV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells could be detected up to 34 years after vaccination.“The levels of MV-specific CD8 T cells and MV-specific IgG remained stable, whereas the level of MV-specific CD4 T cells decreased significantly in subjects who had been vaccinated >21 years earlier.”|
|58) Remembrance of Things Past: Long-Term B Cell Memory After Infection and Vaccination, Palm, 2019||“The success of vaccines is dependent on the generation and maintenance of immunological memory. The immune system can remember previously encountered pathogens, and memory B and T cells are critical in secondary responses to infection.“Studies in mice have helped to understand how different memory B cell populations are generated following antigen exposure and how affinity for the antigen is determinant to B cell fate …“upon re-exposure to an antigen the memory recall response will be faster, stronger, and more specific than a naïve response.“Protective memory depends first on circulating antibodies secreted by LLPCs. When these are not sufficient for immediate pathogen neutralization and elimination, memory B cells are recalled.”|
|59) SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B-cells from individuals with diverse disease severities recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, Lyski, 2021||“Examined the magnitude, breadth and durability of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in two distinct B-cell compartments: long-lived plasma cell-derived antibodies in the plasma, and peripheral memory B-cells along with their associated antibody profiles elicited after in vitro stimulation.“We found that magnitude varied amongst individuals, but was the highest in hospitalized subjects. Variants of concern (VoC) -RBD-reactive antibodies were found in the plasma of 72% of samples in this investigation, and VoC-RBD-reactive memory B-cells were found in all but 1 subject at a single time-point.“This finding, that VoC-RBD-reactive MBCs are present in the peripheral blood of all subjects including those that experienced asymptomatic or mild disease, provides a reason for optimism regarding the capacity of vaccination, prior infection, and/or both, to limit disease severity and transmission of variants of concern as they continue to arise and circulate.”|
|60) Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 generates T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable viral infection, Wang, 2021||“T-cell immunity is important for recovery from COVID-19 and provides heightened immunity for re-infection. However, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in virus-exposed individuals …“report virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts … close contacts are able to gain T-cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 despite lacking a detectable infection.”|
|61) CD8+ T-Cell Responses in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals Target Conserved Epitopes From Multiple Prominent SARS-CoV-2 Circulating Variants, Redd, 2021and Lee, 2021||“The CD4 and CD8 responses generated after natural infection are equally robust, showing activity against multiple ‘epitopes’ (little segments) of the spike protein of the virus.“For instance, CD8 cells responds to 52 epitopes and CD4 cells respond to 57 epitopes across the spike protein, so that a few mutations in the variants cannot knock out such a robust and in-breadth T cell response …“only 1 mutation found in Beta variant-spike overlapped with a previously identified epitope (1/52), suggesting that virtually all anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses should recognize these newly described variants.”|
|62) Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2,La Jolla, Crotty and Sette, 2020||“Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2”|
|63) Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans, Mateus, 2020||“Found that the pre-existing reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 comes from memory T cells and that cross-reactive T cells can specifically recognize a SARS-CoV-2 epitope as well as the homologous epitope from a common cold coronavirus.“These findings underline the importance of determining the impacts of pre-existing immune memory in COVID-19 disease severity.”|
|64) Longitudinal observation of antibody responses for 14 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, Dehgani-Mobaraki, 2021||“Better understanding of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection might provide valuable insights into the future implementation of vaccination policies.“Longitudinal analysis of IgG antibody titers was carried out in 32 recovered COVID-19 patients based in the Umbria region of Italy for 14 months after Mild and Moderately-Severe infection …“study findings are consistent with recent studies reporting antibody persistency suggesting that induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity through natural infection, might be very efficacious against re-infection (>90%) and could persist for more than six months.“Our study followed up patients up to 14 months demonstrating the presence of anti-S-RBD IgG in 96.8% of recovered COVID-19 subjects.”|
|65) Humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell responses in recovered patients with COVID-19, Juno, 2020||“Characterized humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell (cTFH) immunity against spike in recovered patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).“We found that S-specific antibodies, memory B cells and cTFH are consistently elicited after SARS-CoV-2 infection, demarking robust humoral immunity and positively associated with plasma neutralizing activity.”|
|66) Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals, Robbiani, 2020||“149 COVID-19-convalescent individuals…antibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals.“Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml−1.”|
|67) Rapid generation of durable B cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins in COVID-19 and convalescence, Hartley, 2020||“COVID-19 patients rapidly generate B cell memory to both the spike and nucleocapsid antigens following SARS-CoV-2 infection … RBD- and NCP-specific IgG and Bmem cells were detected in all 25 patients with a history of COVID-19.”|
|68) Had COVID? You’ll probably make antibodies for a lifetime, Callaway, 2021||“People who recover from mild COVID-19 have bone-marrow cells that can churn out antibodies for decades … the study provides evidence that immunity triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection will be extraordinarily long-lasting.”|
|69) A majority of uninfected adults show preexisting antibody reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, Majdoubi, 2021||In greater Vancouver Canada, “using a highly sensitive multiplex assay and positive/negative thresholds established in infants in whom maternal antibodies have waned, we determined that more than 90% of uninfected adults showed antibody reactivity against the spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), N-terminal domain (NTD), or the nucleocapsid (N) protein from SARS-CoV-2.”|
|70) SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19, Braun, 2020||“The results indicate that spike-protein cross-reactive T cells are present, which were probably generated during previous encounters with endemic coronaviruses.”|
|71) Naturally enhanced neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 one year after infection, Wang, 2021||“A cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection … the data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting.”|
|72) One Year after Mild COVID-19: The Majority of Patients Maintain Specific Immunity, But One in Four Still Suffer from Long-Term Symptoms, Rank, 2021||“Long-lasting immunological memory against SARS-CoV-2 after mild COVID-19.”|
|73) IDSA, 2021||“Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection can persist for at least 11 months …“natural infection (as determined by a prior positive antibody or PCR-test result) can confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.”|
|74) Assessment of protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study, Holm Hansen, 2021||Denmark, “during the first surge (ie, before June, 2020), 533 381 people were tested, of whom 11 727 (2·20%) were PCR positive, and 525 339 were eligible for follow-up in the second surge, of whom 11 068 (2·11%) had tested positive during the first surge.“Among eligible PCR-positive individuals from the first surge of the epidemic, 72 (0·65% [95% CI 0·51–0·82]) tested positive again during the second surge compared with 16 819 (3·27% [3·22–3·32]) of 514 271 who tested negative during the first surge (adjusted RR 0·195 [95% CI 0·155–0·246]).”|
|75) Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in Acute COVID-19 and Associations with Age and Disease Severity, Moderbacher, 2020||“Adaptive immune responses limit COVID-19 disease severity…multiple coordinated arms of adaptive immunity control better than partial responses …“completed a combined examination of all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and convalescent subjects. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were each associated with milder disease.“Coordinated SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune responses were associated with milder disease, suggesting roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in protective immunity in COVID-19.”|
|76) Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immunity in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals, Ni, 2020||“Collected blood from COVID-19 patients who have recently become virus-free, and therefore were discharged, and detected SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in eight newly discharged patients.“Follow-up analysis on another cohort of six patients 2 weeks post discharge also revealed high titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies.“In all 14 patients tested, 13 displayed serum-neutralizing activities in a pseudotype entry assay. Notably, there was a strong correlation between neutralization antibody titers and the numbers of virus-specific T cells.”|
|77) Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity is maintained at 6 months following primary infection, Zuo, 2020||“Analysed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response in 100 donors at six months following primary infection and related this to the profile of antibody level against spike, nucleoprotein and RBD over the previous six months.“T-cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 were present by ELISPOT and/or ICS analysis in all donors and are characterised by predominant CD4+ T cell responses with strong IL-2 cytokine expression …“functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses are retained at six months following infection.”|
|78) Negligible impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity in COVID-19 exposed donors and vaccinees, Tarke, 2021||“Performed a comprehensive analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses from COVID-19 convalescent subjects recognizing the ancestral strain, compared to variant lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and CAL.20C as well as recipients of the Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccines …“the sequences of the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes are not affected by the mutations found in the variants analyzed.“Overall, the results demonstrate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 subjects or COVID-19 mRNA vaccinees are not substantially affected by mutations.”|
|79) A 1 to 1000 SARS-CoV-2 reinfection proportion in members of a large healthcare provider in Israel: a preliminary report, Perez, 2021||Israel, “out of 149,735 individuals with a documented positive PCR test between March 2020 and January 2021, 154 had two positive PCR tests at least 100 days apart, reflecting a reinfection proportion of 1 per 1000.”|
|80) Persistence and decay of human antibody responses to the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in COVID-19 patients, Iyer, 2020||“Measured plasma and/or serum antibody responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in 343 North American patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (of which 93% required hospitalization) up to 122 days after symptom onset and compared them to responses in 1548 individuals whose blood samples were obtained prior to the pandemic …“IgG antibodies persisted at detectable levels in patients beyond 90 days after symptom onset, and seroreversion was only observed in a small percentage of individuals.“The concentration of these anti-RBD IgG antibodies was also highly correlated with pseudovirus NAb titers, which also demonstrated minimal decay. The observation that IgG and neutralizing antibody responses persist is encouraging, and suggests the development of robust systemic immune memory in individuals with severe infection.”|
|81) A population-based analysis of the longevity of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity in the United States, Alfego, 2021||“To track population-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity duration across the United States using observational data from a national clinical laboratory registry of patients tested by nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) and serologic assays …“specimens from 39,086 individuals with confirmed positive COVID-19 … both S and N SARS-CoV-2 antibody results offer an encouraging view of how long humans may have protective antibodies against COVID-19, with curve smoothing showing population seropositivity reaching 90% within three weeks, regardless of whether the assay detects N or S-antibodies.“Most importantly, this level of seropositivity was sustained with little decay through ten months after initial positive PCR.”|
Originally published by Brownstone Institute.
The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Children’s Health Defense.
by: Mike Adams
October 21, 2021
In today’s analysis, offered both here in article format as well as in the Situation Update podcast below, I reveal why food rationing is coming to America, followed by food riots.
This is an analysis based on current data points and trends, including the collapse of agricultural fertilizer production (affecting crop yields throughout 2022), the collapse of the supply chain for agricultural machinery parts (no parts for tractors, planters, combines, etc.), the continued lockdown-induced labor shortage crisis (affecting food production and processing companies) and the obvious desire by the Biden regime to cause maximum suffering and death across America via vaccine mandates, economic collapse and engineered scarcity.
The implications of all this will extend throughout 2022 and will almost certainly persist into 2023.
We can already see the food shortages on the horizon, due to crop production cycles
While finance predictions are very difficult to nail down due to the ability of financial markets to suddenly shift, agriculture is dependent on natural cycles and time requirements such as seasons, plant growth timelines, availability of fertilizer, costs of fuel, transportation infrastructure, etc. Thus, when agricultural inputs begin failing in the present, it doesn’t require rocket science to project the failures in crop production one or more seasons into the future.
I describe this as future results being “baked in” based on today’s conditions and inputs. Right now, in late 2021, we are seeing the collapse of supply lines for tractor parts, large-scale oil storage facilities projecting a crisis in crude oil shortfall in just the next few weeks, soaring energy prices across Europe, energy shortages on a global scale, the shutting down of fertilizer plants, ammonia plants and greenhouse operations, breakdowns in transportation logistics and deliveries, logjammed ports and container traffic congestion, and many other factors that essentially describe a kind of “siege warfare” under which the United States is currently suffering. (We are living in a “theater of war” right now, and engineered scarcity is just one of the many weapons that has been deployed in that war.)
Knowing all this, we can easily conclude that food availability is going to be crushed through the remainder of 2021, all through 2022, and likely well into 2023.
It is no longer a question of whether food scarcity will dramatically worsen over this time period; it’s merely a question of why it is being engineered (and how long it lasts).
Food scarcity is necessary to provoke food riots and social unrest leading to martial law and the suspension of elections
The Democrats know they’re going to be politically slaughtered in the 2022 mid-term elections if those elections are allowed to take place. If you thought the, “Let’s Go Brandon” chant was popular now, just wait for America to endure another year of starvation, food inflation, supply chain disruptions, border invasions and money printing madness that loots the American pocketbook.
With Democrats already a lawless cabal of heartless criminals who despise the American people, they have been desperately looking for a way to install themselves into permanent power and suspend elections indefinitely. Working backwards from this goal, this outcome can only be accomplished by declaring martial law and suspending the US Constitution and democratic elections.
To declare martial law, they need widespread social chaos, with millions of people in the streets, wreaking havoc across the nation (the more havoc, the better for the Democrats as they attempt to justify martial law or the invocation of the Insurrection Act). But how do you anger people enough to convince millions of them to take to the streets?
You starve them out.
As I pointed out yesterday, America is just nine meals away from anarchy. That means nine missed meals, of course, and engineered food scarcity will ensure those meals are missed in the months ahead.
As people go hungry, anger will rise and they will take to the streets. As the chaos spreads, Biden’s handlers will respond with increasingly authoritarian police state responses. They’re already setting up the narrative by characterizing Americans who buy extra food as “hoarders,” by the way. This is just the beginning of what will soon be coming, including food rationing on a nationwide basis.
The food rationing will have to be enforced by tying food purchases to a person’s ID, which means we will soon have a nation where you don’t need an ID to vote, but you do need an ID to buy food. If this sounds infuriating, that’s the whole point. They want people to get mad and take to the streets, creating the backdrop for the deep state false flag operations that can be used to attempt nationwide gun confiscation and the rolling out of martial law.
Have no doubts that deep state operatives are right now prepping the fertilizer bomb trucks and chemical weapons stockpiles necessary to pull this off. As the crowds flood into the streets, the deep state will staged terrorism attacks to blame patriots, Christians and the unvaccinated. The 2022 mid-terms will be suspended, and Biden might even plunge us into a theatrical war with China — which might even be staged — to declare a nationwide lockdown during “a time of war.”
There’s nothing they won’t do to stop the American people from throwing them out of power.
Mass starvation, mass depopulation via bioweapons, deep state chemical weapons attacks on the domestic population, engineered financial collapse… these are just a few of the weapons now at the disposal of America’s enemies within, and they have no hesitation whatsoever in using them to demonize their political opponents and shore up their authoritarian power, transforming America into a full-blown medical police state.
The war on America has only just begun. It’s going to get a lot worse by Christmas, and then even worse in 2022.
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