Only to be listened to on Saturdays.
The 19th century Irish crimewave that wasn’t: how a change of policing brought the English counterfeiters to book.
The claim that immigrants or minorities are more criminal than the general population is a common trope. From Donald Trump’s claim that Mexicans in the US were “bringing drugs … bringing crime. They’re rapists”, to the frequent portrayal of African-Americans as having a criminal mentality, to how black men are disproportionately stopped by the police under “stop and search” laws in the UK. Other studies have explored how “driving while black” can increase a drivers’ likelihood of being charged with a traffic offence.
People have long blamed those unlike themselves. Are immigrants and minorities more criminal than locals, or just more likely to get caught – or even just more likely to be blamed? An example of Irish living in London at the beginning of the professional police era shows that who ends up in front of the judge is more dependent on how the crime is policed than on who is responsible. If police tactics unduly target minority groups, then this inflation of the criminal statistics can, and has, been used to paint minority groups in a negative light.
London experienced a massive crime wave between 1797 and 1821, linked almost entirely to counterfeiting and forgery. The problem got so bad that people began to worry if the cash in their pocket was real – aware that they could be executed for knowingly spending bad money. Bank notes had only recently been introduced in England and, as historian Randall McGowen has remarked, they were “scarcely more than a printed form with a number, a date and a clerk’s signature”. Forgers even had the gall to produce the fake bank notes in prison, selling them onward for a fraction of their face value to anyone brave enough to attempt to pass them off in the city’s shops.
Even coinage, then comprised of actual silver and gold, was at risk. Talented button makers and engravers turned their attention to the technically similar processes of making false coins, which would be made with a cheaper metal and rubbed with aqua fortis (nitric acid) or aqua regis (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) to make the fake appear either silver or gold respectively.
Soon the city was crawling with fake money, including more than 250,000 forged banknotes. Patrick Colquhoun, a magistrate of the era, estimated 120 sellers were each distributing hundreds of false coins onto the city’s streets. He singled out the Irish as one of the problem groups behind the crime wave.
Peter King’s previous research on Irish crime claimed the justice system did not show an anti-Irish prejudice and that the Irish criminals got what was coming to them. Certainly there are records from London’s courtrooms to support this.
For example, Irishmen John Fennell and James Gillington were arrested in 1799 after having allegedly forged more than 600 bank notes with a home-made printing press. But at the other end of the spectrum the records are filled with Irish such as John Brown, who tried to pay for his glass of gin at the pub with a false coin. Looking at the numbers alone the Irish do seem to have been a problem – but these numbers hide the extent to which policing strategy affected who got arrested in the first place.
Initially, the authorities relied almost exclusively on tips from shopkeepers who had been offered false money. It fell to them to detain suspects and call for the watchman who would make the arrest. This meant people spending false money had a far greater chance of getting arrested than those involved in the more profitable aspects of manufacture and wholesale.
The Irish were more involved in the petty but very public act of spending the money – those aspects of the crime most associated with poverty. As new arrivals, the Irish were at a further disadvantage, and cunning locals were only too happy to trick their new “friends” into buying a round at the bar with the false coins they supplied. With the system of policing set up to almost exclusively target these minor players, the courtrooms filled with poor Irish which led to their reputation for criminality.
Despite these arrests the problem of forgery worsened. So, in 1812, the Bank of England changed its strategy, encouraging specialist detectives to hunt for the real counterfeiters. With generous rewards as incentives, these detectives soon managed to infiltrate the criminal networks. This often involved using accomplices in the crime to trick the counterfeiters and wholesalers into selling to an undercover agent, in exchange for a reduction in their own sentence.
For the first time the Bank was encouraging local criminals to “out” other local criminals and, as they did so, the ethnic makeup of defendants appearing in the court began to change: the number of English defendants rose 27-fold in the years immediately after the change in policing strategy.
This research highlights what gets missed when policing focuses on crime perpetrated by ethnic minorities. No one at the time noticed the dramatic reduction in Irish defendants but, by the 1810s, the claim that the Irish were behind the forged currency crime wave was unsupportable. This wasn’t because the situation had changed for the criminals, but because the police had changed where they were looking for them – and discovered that the real culprits behind the crime wave were the local English, and probably always had been.
May 19, 2017
A recent scientific study just proved something that viewers of CNN have probably suspected for years: Journalists’ brains function at a lower level than the rest of the population.
A study conducted by neuroscientist Tara Swift and the London Press Club determined that “the highest functions of journalists brains were operating at a lower level than the average population, due to dehydration, self-medicating, and fueling their brains with caffeine and high-sugar foods”
“However, the pressures of the job are not affecting journalists ability to endure and bounce back from adversity in the long term, due to a belief that their work has meaning,” according to a press release from the London Press Club.
Journalists’ brains show a lower level of executive function – that is, the ability of the brain to regulate emotions, suppress biases, switch between tasks, solve complex problems and think flexibly and creatively – than the average person because to their heavy drinking, and caffeine consumption. They also eat too many high-sugar foods, and don’t devote enough time to mindfulness.
Dr Swart recruited 31 journalists from across the industry to participate in the study. Participants were required to record their eating and drinking habits, answer a brain profile questionnaire, take blood tests, and wear heart-rate variability monitors.
The study was initially launched to examine how journalists manage to “survive and thrive” while managing such high levels of occupational stress. “Journalism,” the press release notes, “is one of many industries under an increasing amount of pressure in the digital age. Low pay, frequent deadlines, and high levels of accountability all contribute to high reported stress levels.”
With permission from
May 19, 2017As NY Times journalists fly to Antarctica with scientists to examine cascading ice sheets, it’s worth looking into their level of curiosity because that’s not a normal occurrence. After all, who can possibly be interested in ice sheets a couple of miles thick where it’s cold and icy 9,000 miles away?
Here’s why the high level of interest: Antarctica is equivalent to 200’ of seawater rise, and it appears to be coming apart at the seams in some very vulnerable areas. The NY journalists, after all, are from a city that will be under water in the worse case scenario, and telltale signs of big trouble are already way too evident, certainly evident enough to move NY journalists off their butts to travel 9,000 miles to visit the massive ice sheet.
It’s Global Warming at work!
Upfront, the conclusion to this article: When it comes to Global Warming, the USA has the wrong people in the White House and Congress, which may be the understatement of the decade… rather of the century, assuming we all make it that far, which is looking more and more doubtful.
The NY Times’ article Miles of Ice Collapsing into the Sea d/d May 18, 2017 actually shows the ice flow, which is extremely intriguing: written by Justin Gillis with maps and graphics by Derek Watkins and Jeremy White and photographs by Jonathan Corum and video by Evan Grothjan and Graham Roberts and additional production by Larry Buchanan and Rumsey Taylor. Add an email address at the foot of the NY Times article to receive their in-depth journalism about climate change around the world. It’s a wonderful fulfilling experience.
As stated by the journalists, they traveled to Antarctica to see how the vast ice sheet might affect the world. Without hesitation, the answer to their query is as follows: It will change life horribly forevermore.
Daydreaming… If only America took the lead against CO2 emissions at Kyoto Protocol (1997) and insisted upon conversion to renewables, similar to how Congress authorized 100% solar power on the International Space Station (yr. 2000) for our astronauts (but no such effort for the country at large), as well as taking other remedial steps like whitening commercial rooftops, and consciously cutting back CO2 emissions at utility power sources, etc., the world might not be in such a dangerous pickle today. As it happens, too many US politicians reject the science, deniers of climate change. They are many, too many.
Hopefully, it is not too late at this late date because climate change/global warming is on a virtual rip-snorting stretch turbocharged and bloody dangerous beyond anyone’s imagination! It’s happening so fast that it’s ahead of science by miles and miles.
Here’s living proof as witnessed by NY Times journalists: “The acceleration is making some scientists fear that Antarctica’s ice sheet may have entered the early stages of an unstoppable disintegration,” Ibid.
According to the scientists on the trip, here’s the danger: If greenhouses gases (GHG) like CO2 emitted by burning fossil fuels, like oil and coal, continue at today’s high levels, parts of Antarctica could break up rapidly with a resultant 6’ of sea level rise by the end of this century, which is double the maximum increase projected by the international panel only four years ago.
But wait, there is more: Those forecasts of four years ago are described “as crude” even by the researchers who created them. “We could be decades too fast, or decades too slow,’ said one of them, Robert M. DeConto of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst,” Ibid.
What if they are decades too slow or too fast?
Whichever, the bad case means all hell is going to break lose any time now within decades, or roughly, 2025-to-2075 as a guess. Whoops, that seems to put present day generations smack dab in line of fire, or rather in way too much water overflowing city levees.
“Remote as Antarctica may seem, every person in the world… is contributing to the emissions that put the frozen continent at risk. If those emissions continue unchecked and the world is allowed to heat up enough, scientists have no doubt that large parts of Antarctica will melt into the sea,” Ibid.
“No doubt that large parts of Antarctica will melt into the sea” is the curse of global warming, and it does not take a brain surgeon to figure out that it results in the end of civilization, as we know it.
Based upon not only the Ross Ice Shelf that the journalists visited, but also Pine Island Glacier, which scientists have already determined is irreversibly cascading, it really appears the worst case may be under way now. It’s only too obvious that’s why the NY journalists traveled there in the first place. After all, they didn’t travel 9,000 miles to see stable ice!
Congratulations climate denial politicians in America, like Senator Jim Inhofe (R-OK), Senator Sullivan (R-AK), Rep Duncan Hunter (R-CA), Rep Darrell Issa (R-CA), Rep Devin Nunes (R-CA), Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA-48) who claims: “Just so you’ll know, global warming is a total fraud…” Blah, blah, blah, the list goes on and on endlessly, mostly Republicans.
Send them on a field trip to Alaska to inspect this:
Disastrous breaking news out of Alaska: The following is a synopsis (quotation) of a horrifying scientific release d/d May 11, 2017:
“The study, based on aircraft measurements of carbon dioxide and methane and tower measurements from Barrow, Alaska, found that from 2012 through 2014, the state emitted the equivalent of 220 million tons of carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere from biological sources (the figure excludes fossil fuel burning and wildfires). That’s an amount comparable to all the emissions from the US commercial sector in a single year.”
“The chief reason for the greater CO2 release was that as Alaska has warmed up, emissions from once frozen tundra in winter are increasing – presumably because the ground is not refreezing as quickly. Now what? Sit in a circle and hold hands, or get to work to find what (if any) options we’ve got?”
That’s Global Warming!
That is horrific news. It now appears that nature is cooperating in a positive feedback loop (which is extremely negative, as it is nature operating hands-free on auto pilot) in harmony with humans, overflowing the atmosphere with heat-trapping greenhouse gases. That’s a perfect script for an end of the world apocalypse film project.
And, it is happening right now!
Not tomorrow or in another decade. It’s happening now, as of today. And, how about Siberia, which is much more vast and riddled with wildly out of control methane (CH4) release, the deadly twin sister to CO2?
“Russian scientists recently discovered 7,000 earthen knobs erupting from the Siberian Arctic, each the size of a small hill. It was as though the permafrost had broken out into giant grass-covered mounds. What’s more, an unknown number of these bubbles could contain methane and explode, forming craters, the Siberian Times reported… It’s definitely related to warming, Romanovsky said. If these solid chunks warm up and decompose — and the Arctic region is heating up at a rate double the rest of the planet” (Ben Guarino, Russian Scientists Find 7,000 Siberian Hills Possibly Filled with Explosive Gas, The Washington Post, March 27, 2017.
Global warming is up to its dirty work in Siberia, where enough methane is stored in permafrost over millennia to toss the world into a massive self-feeding global warming super cycle that literally scorches world agriculture to a standstill. What then?
Maybe Senator Dan Sullivan (R-AK) would be willing to take a field trip, since it’s also happening in his state of Alaska, to give a personal assessment to the American people and to the US Senate. Here’s his quote about global warming: “With 7 billion humans on earth, there is likely some impact on nature. The last few years clearly show, though, that there is no concrete scientific consensus on the extent to which humans contribute to climate change.”
Oops, he’s the wrong guy.
Up until Caesar hit the shores of our nation our nation had sought out each others tribes, enslaved them, destroyed their blood lines, the odd bit of genocide and the odd bit of thuggery, buggery, incest and rape, and with the exception of a few odds and sods in raids and the like, that is where we had stayed for many years.
Our trade stretched all over the known world, our security lay in the fact that we had no central government over the tribes so cutting the head off the snake, as they say, was not a viable solutions to invasion.
Caesar already had experience with this tribal system in the northern frontiers of Rome; dealing with these tribes meant one at a time, unlike the Greek tribes who had fallen unilaterally when their leadership was destroyed and taken over by Rome.
The Romans assimilated more than they have ever invented, gods and technology being their prime targets for legitimizing the roman dominance of the tribes of Europe and most of the known world.
All the way down to the first “Roman Navy”, they copied, assimilated and controlled, but first, they had to conquer!
As he looked over the stormy waters to our lands, seeking the plunder therein, he knew the key to this land would be the religion of the land.
He already knew he could beat the warriors with the discipline and regimentation of the officers and men under his command,
He also knew that the druids of the northern tribes held more sway than many of the tribal leaders.
Decades of torturing the Germanic druids had brought nothing to give him the edge over this strange religion.
His legions has been mauled many times by having their minds attacked first for long periods of time then sudden attacks of fury few had ever seen before far less survived.
He knew that the destruction of these druids were a necessity because they just would not give in, it really was that simple.
On the nod of the druid head generations of warriors would be thrown at the shield walls of the roman army, slaughtered, sometimes on scales of twenty to one, but still these warriors would be back at the shield wall the following hour.
Even liquidation of whole tribes seemed to do nothing else than anger them more, subjugation of one in ten of the tribes was not a good result for any army.
Irrespective of the spiritual or the religious aspect of these druids, they all used the mind of their followers to better the followers; it was a symbiotic relationship of trust.
The warriors trust the druid to give him the edge, courage in battle and a good afterlife, the druid knew if he didn’t deliver he was dog food.
Whilst the druid knew he could play games with “after you are dead” he could get away with that type of psychology when the person was alive because we all have a real fear of being dead.
So the religious aspect was built on him looking after our souls when they pass into the other life, but to prove that he “could”, not can, do this he needed to get practical.
Over time these druids used three very effective weapons of mind realignment; the psychological warfare of words and the use of chemical warfare and inducements.
The mind is the warrior, the body the tool, to carry the weapon that is the warrior.
These druid knew that before a war there had to be propagation of children, or the tribes would be destroyed, the collective national parties of the tribes has been proven to be the genetic pool our tribes grew from.
The use of the local version of ink cap mushrooms from all over the country would have been prevalent at these parties, even as late as the 1990’s it was not uncommon to go to a party in the UK and someone would have a bag of mushrooms.
Now, for those who have just seen the penny drop, a whole tribal cluster, drunk, songs women and mushrooms, and the druid to translate it…………………..
Harmony, bliss, love, the after world, the perceptions of spirituality and that little push so you leave reality for a different reality, no wonder we breed like rabbits.
The druids could fill in the context of your drug induced rave up any way he sees fit, it made you feel, belong, become.
You may be smashed out of your skull but……….. yea.
As with anything the druids knew that the dark side of this kind of drug was as destructive as it was productive, so the fear campaign against the next drug was started, and rightly so, the drug that made good men pathological killers with the conscience of a tree.
Fly agaric; the soup of the gods, the spiritual journey of a warrior, the strength of an army, the courage of a storm and the stupidity to run head long into a roman shield wall.
With this drug the warrior is no longer a father, brother, lover or sister, that warrior is a killer of the first order who will never feel the blow that takes their life, and they will pass into the next world hoping the druid told the truth.
Generations later the druids and the Caesars are still playing the games.
A study of insurance claim data shows that some ER doctors are massively overprescribing
The scale of America’s opioid epidemic is difficult to fathom: As many as 10 million people misuse these powerful painkillers, with about 78 people dying of an overdose every day. But how do these addictions get started? It may be as heartbreakingly simple as how many pills a person is given when a doctor first prescribes them opioids.
That’s the finding of researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, who looked at the insurance claims data for 53,000 people in 2011 or 2012 who visited the emergency room for an ankle sprain. That’s not an injury that would typically be severe enough to need a heavy-duty painkiller like an opioid, but seven percent of them received such a prescription. What matters is how wildly the number of opioids prescribed varied, with doctors giving their patients anywhere from fewer than 15 to 60 or more pills to take home.
The researchers found those who received 30 or more of the pills were twice as likely to get another prescription filled within the next six months than those who were only given 15 or fewer. That suggests a greater number of pills increased the chances people would develop a dependence on the drug. There were also variations between states: People in Mississippi were 10 times more likely to receive opioids than people in Delaware, for instance.
The study suggests overprescription of opioids is helping fuel the epidemic in two distinct ways. First, as the researchers point out, it’s questionable whether there’s any good reason to give an opioid to people with a minor injury like an ankle sprain, given how dangerous addictive the drug is. But even granting that, keeping opioid prescriptions to a five-day supply would keep pills from entering society unnecessarily. New Jersey passed such a law in February, one of the country’s strictest